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Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in the Middle East$

Gawdat Bahgat

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780813031668

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813031668.001.0001

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(p.205) Index

(p.205) Index

Source:
Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in the Middle East
Publisher:
University Press of Florida

Note: Page numbers in italics indicate tables.

Abandonment of nuclear program. See Nuclear reversal or rollback
Abdullah (crown prince of Saudi Arabia), 71, 83
Abdullah II (king of Jordan), 47, 76
Abdullah bin Ali (regent of Iraq). See Ali, Abdullah bin
Abu Mussa, 54, 73
Abu Sayyaf Group, 144
Acquisition of nuclear weapons. See Nuclear weapons, acquisition of
Additional Protocol (AP): description of, 12;
Egypt and, 115;
Iran and, 22, 38;
Libya and, 125
Afghanistan, 9, 26, 31–32
African Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (NWFZ). See Treaty of Pelindaba.See also Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone
Aghazadeh, Gholamreza, 175n.58
Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud, 35, 36
Al-Aqsa Mosque, 70
Al-Badr, Muhammad, 77
Al-Bakr, Ahmad Hassan, 45
Albright, David, 84
Al-Faisal, Saud, 76, 158, 177n.2
Al-Fatah missile program, 129
Al-Hussein, Sharif, 74–75
Ali, Abdullah bin, 45
Al-Khilewi, Muhammad, 65–66
Allon, Yigal, 90
Al-Megrahi, Abd al-Basset, 143
Alpher, Joseph, 97–98
Arab-Israeli conflict: Gulf crisis and, 96–97;
Libya and, 132–33;
as motivation for nuclear proliferation, 8–9;
NWFZ and, 155–57;
Saudi Arabia and, 69–71, 79
Arab Organization for Industrialization, 113
Arab unity, 134–35. See also Pan-Arabism
Arafat, Yasser, 99, 133
Aref, Abd al-Salam, 45
Argentina, 2, 10, 15, 113–14
Arms control and regional security working group (ACRS), 155
Aronson, Shlomo, 90
Arrow antitactical ballistic missile system (ATBM), 104–5
Atoms for Peace program, 105
Australia, 14
Baghdad Pact, 50
Bahrain, 47, 73
Barcelona Process, 144
Barnett, Michael, 18
Baruch, Bernard, 11
Begin, Menachem, 57
Belarus, 2, 10, 15
Ben-Gurion, David, 88, 89, 90, 102
Bergmann, Ernst David, 88, 89
Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC): Arab states, Iran, and, 158;
Egypt and, 111;
Iraq and, 55;
Libya and, 128;
status of signature to and ratification of, 161
Biological weapons (BW): description of, 1;
Egypt and, 111;
Iraq and, 55;
Israel and, 89;
Libya and, 128
Blix, Hans, 17, 41
Brazil, 2, 10, 15
Britain. See Great Britain
Brom, Shlomo, 101
Buraimi, 68
Bureaucrats and proliferation policy, 6
Bush (George Herbert Walker) administration, 52, 99, 154
Bush (George Walker) administration: Iran and, 31, 33;
National Security Strategy, 15–17, 147;
Saudi Arabia and, 67
Bushehr power reactor, 20–21, 22, 39
Butler, Richard, 8
Byman, Daniel, 5
(p.206) Carter, Jimmy, 142
Central Asian Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (NWFZ). See Treaty of Bangkok. See also Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone
Chad, 132;
Front for the Liberation of Chad (FROLINAT), 132
Chemical weapons (CW): description of, 1;
Egypt and, 110–11;
S. Hussein and, 27, 43, 98;
against Iran, 27;
Iraq and, 27, 43, 52–53, 55–56;
Israel and, 89;
Libya and, 128;
weaponization of, 176n.23
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), 128, 158, 161
Cheney, Dick, 127
China: Egypt and, 112–13;
Iran and, 20, 22, 24, 32;
nuclear weapons and, 2;
Saudi Arabia and, 66–67
Chipman, John, 41
Chubin, Shahram, 27
Cirincione, Joseph, 30
Cohen, Avner, 11, 93, 102, 103, 157
Cold war: Arab, 70;
Saudi Arabia and, 68;
transfer of nuclear technology during, 4
Comprehensive Report of the Iraq Survey Group, 44
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT): Egypt and, 115;
Libya and, 129;
Saudi Arabia and, 65;
status of signature to and ratification of, 160
Cooperative threat reduction (CTR) programs, 16
CSS-2 missiles, 66–67
Czechoslovakia, 90
Dagan, Meir, 28
Dayan, Moshe, 89, 179n.27
Declaration on the Denuclearization of Korea. See Southeast Asia NWFZ
De Gaulle, Charles, 92
Desert Fox military operation (1998), 60
DeSutter, Paula A., 126
Dimona nuclear reactor, 92, 93, 102, 105–6, 156
Domino effect, 28
Dual-use capability, 12–13, 62
Duelfer, Charles, 61
Economy: of Egypt, 119–22;
of Iran, 34–36;
of Iraq, 54; of Libya, 137–41, 146;
nuclear rollback and, 10–11;
of Saudi Arabia, 81–83
Egypt: arms deal of, 90–91;
biological weapons and, 111;
chemical weapons and, 110–11;
economy of, 119–22;
France and, 113;
Israel and, 8–9, 91, 93–94, 100, 109, 118–19;
leadership of, 109–10, 115–18;
missile program of, 111–13;
nuclear posture of, 109–10, 123–24, 149;
nuclear weapons and, 113–15;
Saudi Arabia and, 71;
Soviet Union and, 112, 113, 116–17, 122;
U.S. and, 122–23;
Ehteshami, Anoushiravan, 85
Eilts, Hermann, 69
Einhorn, Robert J., 117
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 105
ElBaradei, Mohamed: on Iran, 40;
on Iraq, 60;
Israel and, 157;
nuclear power and, 13;
on NWFZs, 151;
rumors about, 115
Engelhardt, Michael, 106
Eshkol, Levi, 93, 102
European Union: Iran and, 19, 22, 38–39;
Strategy against Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, 147
Fahd (crown prince of Saudi Arabia), 71
Fahima, al-Amin Khalifa, 143
Faisal (king of Saudi Arabia), 70
Faisal I (Faisal Ibn Hussein, king of Iraq), 45
Faisal II (king of Iraq), 45
Feldman, Shai, 98, 107, 113
Fletcher, Yvonne, 142
France: Egypt and, 113;
Israel and, 91–92;
nuclear weapons and, 2;
U.S. policy and, 15
Frankel, Benjamin, 8
Gadafi, Muammar: Arab unity and, 134–35;
coup by, 133;
education and career of, 133–34;
Europe and, 145;
ideological framework of, 134;
Israel and, 132–33;
Kusa and, 125;
nuclear weapons aspirations of, 129;
pan-Africanism and, 135–36;
reinvention of, 136–37;
third international theory and, 135;
U.S. and, 141–42
(p.207) Gadafi, Saif al-Islam, 137, 145
Germany: Egypt and, 112;
Iran and, 23;
Israel and, 101;
Libya and, 16;
nuclear weapons and, 2, 5;
security guarantees and, 14;
U.S. policy and, 15
Ghazi (king of Iraq), 45
Gigot, Paul, 52
Globalization: acquisition of nuclear weapons and, 4–5;
nuclear rollback and, 10–11
Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), 16–17
Graham, Thomas, 103, 157
Great Britain: Iraq and, 50;
Libya and, 16;
nuclear weapons and, 2;
Saudi Arabia and, 67–68, 79
“Great equalizer”: Iraq and, 49–50;
Israel and, 88;
weapons as, ix, 2
Greater Tunb, 54, 73
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), 73
Gulf War: Iran and, 27;
Iraq and, 53, 55, 59, 75;
Israel and, 96–99;
U.S. and, 9, 52–53
Haass, Richard, 33
Habre, Hussein, 132
Hamas, 28, 73
Hashemite dynasty, 74–75
Hashim, Ahmed, 123–24
Hemed Beit, 89–101
Henderson, Simon, 52
Hersh, Seymour, 93
Hezbollah, 28
Hoon, Geoff, 127
Hunter, Robert, 146
Hussein, Saddam: biological weapons and, 55;
chemical weapons and, 27, 43, 98;
foreign policy of, 44, 45;
Gulf War and, 52–53, 98–99;
Iraq and, 49;
Israel and, 75, 100, 180n.32;
Osiraq raid and, 29;
reign of, 45–46, 48, 54;
removal of, 62–63, 76–77, 99
Hydrocarbon reserves, 32
Ibn Abd al-Aziz, Saud (King of Saudi Arabia), 68, 74–75
Ibn Abd al-Aziz, Sultan, 65–66
Ibn Hussein, Faisal, 45
Idris (king of Libya), 133, 141
Independent Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, 14
India: Iran and, 32;
NPT and, 12, 148;
nuclear weapons and, 2, 7
Indonesia, 152
Inshas nuclear reactor, 113–14
Internal dynamics and domestic politics model: Iran and, 34–36;
Libya and, 137–41;
overview of, 6–7;
Saudi Arabia and, 81–84
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): Iran and, 19, 22–23, 40;
Iraq and, 57, 59–60;
Israel and, 57;
Libya and, 126, 127, 130–31;
International nonproliferation regime, 11–14
Iran: accusations against and negotiations with, 19;
defense expenditure 2003, 85;
European Union and, 19, 22, 38–39;
Gulf War and, 27;
history of nuclear program of, 20–25;
international response to nuclear program of, 37–40;
investment in nuclear technology by, 19–20;
Iraq and, 26–27, 54;
Israel and, 27–31;
missile program of, 24–25, 30;
national pride of, 36–37;
natural gas reserves in, 37, 73;
negotiations with, 41–42;
nuclear status of, 20, 23–24, 32–33, 147, 148–49;
oil reserves of, 32, 34–35, 37, 73;
political and economic developments in, 34–36;
Russia and, 20, 24, 39–40;
Saudi Arabia and, 72–74;
security incentives of, 25–33;
Shiites in, 26, 36, 72–73;
strategy for, 20;
U.S. and, 20–21, 31–33;
Iran-Iraq war: border disputes and, 48;
Israel and, 94–96;
Saudi Arabia and, 75;
U.S. and, 51;
“war of the cities,” 24, 95–96;
WMD and, 53
Iraq: acquisition of WMD by, 45–50;
assessment of WMD of, 53–59;
chemical weapons and, 27, 43, 52–53, 55–56;
defense expenditure 2003, 85;
ethnic fragmentation in, 47–48;
future of WMD in, 62–63;
geography of, 48–49;
Gulf War and, 53, 55, 59, 75;
history of, 45;
inspection process in, 59–60;
invasion of, 61;
Iran and, 26–27, 54;
Israel and, 8–9, 49, 75, 97–98;
(p.208) Kuwait and, 48–49, 96–99;
missile program of, 55;
National Intelligence Estimate and, 61;
no-fly zones, 47, 76;
nuclear weapons and, 56–59;
Osiraq raid, 29–30, 43, 56–59;
proliferation of WMD and, 43–44;
religious fragmentation in, 46–47;
Saudi Arabia and, 74–77;
Scud missile attacks against Israel by, 97–98;
Shiites in, 27, 46–47;
Sunnis in, 46;
U.S. and, 9, 27, 36, 50–53, 61. See also Hussein, Saddam; Iran-Iraq war
Iraq Survey Group (ISG), 44, 61–62
Iraq war: impact on nuclear proliferation, 3;
Israel and, 99–101;
Senate Report on the U.S. Intelligence Community's Prewar Intelligence Assessments on Iraq, 44
Irish Republican Army (IRA), 143
Islamic fundamentalism, 79–80
Islamic Jihad, 73
Israel: Egypt and, 8–9, 91, 93–94, 100, 109, 118–19;
founding fathers of, 89–90;
France and, 91–92;
Gulf War and, 96–99;
Iran and, 27–31;
Iran-Iraq war and, 94–96;
Iraq and, 8–9, 49, 75, 97–98, 108 32;
Iraq war and, 99–101;
military doctrine of, 88–89;
missile programs of, 101, 103–5;
1967 war, 69–70, 93–94, 106, 116, 119;
nuclear program opacity, 102–3;
nuclear weapons capability of, 87–93, 107–8, 147, 148;
NWFZ and, 155–57;
Osiraq raid and, 29–30, 43, 56–59;
policy on nuclear disarmament, 107;
Saudi Arabia and, 68–72;
sea-based nuclear capability of, 101;
security concerns of, 88–89;
Turkey and, 74;
U.S. and, 58, 98, 105–7;
Yom Kippur War, 94, 117, 119. See also Arab-Israeli conflict
Israel Space Agency, 104
Italy, 16, 145
Jannati, Ahmad, 174n.56
Japan, 2, 5, 14, 32
Jericho missiles, 103–4
Jihad, 28
Johnson, Lyndon B., 106
Johnson, Rebecca, 158–59
Jordan, 71, 93–94, 100. See also Abdullah II
Kam, Ephraim, 29, 101
Kamel, Hussein, 59
Kay, David, 61
Kazakhstan, 2, 10, 15
Kechichian, Joseph, 72–73
Kemp, Geoffrey, 20
Kennedy, John F., 106
Khamenei, Ayatollah Ali, 28, 35, 37
Khan, Abdul Qadir: actions of, 4, 156;
centrifuge components and, 16, 125–26;
Egypt and, 115;
Iran and, 26;
Libya and, 126, 130;
Saudi Arabia and, 66
Khartoum conference, 70
Khatami, Muhammad, 34, 36, 38
Khobar Towers attack, 80
Khomeini, Ayatollah, 21, 28, 51, 52
Kupchan, Clifford, 35
Kurds, 47–48, 49, 54
Kusa, Musa, 125
Kuwait: Gulf Cooperation Council and, 73;
Iraq and, 48–49;
Israel and, 96–99;
1967 war and, 70;
Saudi Arabia and, 75–76;
Shiites in, 47. See also Gulf War
Latin and Caribbean NWFZ, 151, 152
Lavoy, Peter, 5–6
Leadership: acquisition of nuclear weapons and, 5–6;
of Egypt, 109–10, 115–18;
of Libya, 133–37;
nuclear policy and, 149
Lebanon, 47
Lesser, Ian, 6
Lesser Tunb, 54, 73
Levite, Ariel E., 171n.24
Libya: centrifuge components for, 16, 125–26;
domestic economic and political changes in, 137–41;
Israel and, 8–9;
leadership of, 133–37;
missile program of, 128–29;
1967 war and, 70;
oil policy of, 139–40, 141, 145;
reintegration of, 147;
sanctions against, 144, 146, 149;
security concerns of, 132–33;
Soviet Union and, 129, 135, 142;
terrorism and, 142–45;
U.S. and, 127, 141–45;
Lippman, Thomas, 66, 85
Litwak, Robert, 15, 17, 29
Long, David, 80
(p.209) Madrid conference, 98–99, 154–55
Malaysia, 152
Mandela, Nelson, 136
Maoz, Zeev, 103
Mccgwire, Michael, 12–13
Meir, Golda, 90, 106, 179n.27
Menem, Carlos, 114
Middle East: arms race in, 100, 104, 153–54;
instability in, 69;
nuclear proliferation in, 148–49, 158–60;
nuclear uncertainty in, 147–48;
as nuclear weapon-free zone (MENWFZ), 21, 153–55
Military expenditures, 85
Missile programs: Egypt and, 111–13;
Iran and, 24–25, 30;
Iraq and, 55;
Israel and, 101, 103–5;
Libya and, 128–29;
Saudi Arabia and, 66–67
Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), 126, 129
Mofaz, Shaul, 28
Mubarak, Hosni, 76, 114, 117–18, 122, 154
Nagib, Muhammad, 118
Nasser, Gamal Abdel: coup by, 118;
defeat of, 70;
economy and, 120;
Gadafi and, 134;
S. Hussein and, 54;
Israel and, 91, 118, 119;
nuclear weapons and, 113;
on role of Egypt, 115–16
National Intelligence Estimate (NIE), 61
National pride and acquisition of nuclear weapons, 7–8, 36–37
National Security Strategy of the United States of America, 15–17, 147
National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction, 15–17
Natural gas reserves in Iran, 37, 73
Negative security assurances, 14
1967 war, 69–70, 93–94, 106, 116, 119
Nixon, Richard, 94, 106, 141
Nonproliferation policy: demand side of, 17, 20;
double standard of, 105, 157–58;
supply side of, 15, 17, 20;
of U.S., 14–17
Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT): Article III, 12, 165–66;
Article IV, 12–13, 36, 166;
Article VI, 13, 167;
Article VII, 150, 167–68;
Article X, 13, 169;
Egypt and, 114;
history of, 11–14;
India and, 148;
Iran and, 21, 23, 40;
Iraq and, 56;
Libya and, 129;
Nonsignatory states, 157;
Pakistan and, 12, 148;
Saudi Arabia and, 74;
Status of signature to and ratification of, 159;
Text of, 163–69;
UN Security Council and, 7
North Korea: draft accord with, 32;
Egypt and, 112–13;
Iran and, 24;
NPT and, 12;
nuclear capabilities of, 2, 3
Norway, 92
Nuclear reactors: Dimona, 92, 93, 102, 105–6, 156;
in Egypt, 113–15;
in Iran, 20–21, 22, 39;
Tajura, 129. See also Osiraq raid
Nuclear reversal or rollback: economic and political changes and, 10–11;
international nonproliferation regime and, 11–14;
overview of, 9–10, 17–18;
U.S. policy and, 14–17. See also Libya
Nuclear Suppliers' Group (NSG), 16
Nuclear weapon-free zone (NWFZ): African, 129, 151, 152–53;
Arab/Iranian approach to, 157–58;
Central Asian, 151, 153;
Egypt and, 116;
globally, 151–53;
Israeli stand on, 155–57;
Latin and Caribbean, 151–52;
Middle East, 21, 153–55, 158–60;
prospects for, 149–51;
Saudi Arabia and, 64;
Southeast Asia, 151, 152;
South Pacific, 151
Nuclear weapons, acquisition of: globalization and technological imperative, 4–5;
internal dynamics and domestic policies model, 6–7, 34–36, 81–84, 137–41;
by Iran, 20–25;
leadership and cognitive or psychological approaches, 5–5, 109–10, 115–18, 133–37, 149;
national pride an prestige, 7–8, 36–37;
Nuclear weapons, characteristics of, 1–2
Oil reserves: Iran and, 32, 34–35, 37, 73;
Saudi Arabia and, 67, 73
Oman, 73, 100
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), 127, 128
Organization of African Unity, 132, 152
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 73
(p.210) Osiraq raid, 29–30, 43, 56–59
Ottoman Empire, 45, 46
Pahlavi regime: Britain and, 36;
deposition of, 54–55;
Israel and, 27–28;
nuclear program and, 21, 37;
Saudi Arabia and, 72;
Soviet Union and, 39;
U.S. and, 36, 50, 51
Pakistan: acquisition of nuclear weapons by, 2, 7;
Iran and, 26;
Libya and, 130;
NPT and, 12, 148;
Saudi Arabia and, 66, 84. See also Khan, Abdul Qadir
Pan-Africanism, 135–36
Pan Am Flight 103, 143
Pan-Arabism, 50–51, 68
Patriot missile defense batteries, 104
Paul, T. V., 8
Peres, Shimon, 87, 89, 102, 107
Perkovich, George, 20
Perrin, Francis, 92
Peterson, J. E., 83–84
Pfirter, Rogelio, 128
Poland, 151
Political change and nuclear rollback, 10–11
Political reform: in Libya, 137–41;
in Saudi Arabia, 83–84
Pollack, Kenneth, 5
Posen, Barry, 41
Positive security assurances, 14
Prestige and acquisition of nuclear weapons, 7–8
Project Daniel, 89
Proliferation puzzle, 4
Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), 16
Qasim, Abd al-Karim, 45
Qatar, 73, 81, 100
Queddei, Goukouni, 132
Rabin, Yitzhak, 90
Radiological weapons, 2
Rafsanjani, Akbar Hashemi, 34, 35
Rapacki Plan, 151
Reagan administration, 51, 58, 142
Realism theory, 8
Reiss, Mitchell, 5
Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), 133, 138
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 68
Rubin, Barry, 51
Russell, James, 76–77
Russell, Richard, 53, 85
Russia: Iran and, 20, 24, 39–40;
nuclear weapons and, 2. See also Soviet Union
Sadat, Anwar: on biological weapons, 111;
S. Hussein and, 54;
infitah of, 119–20, 121;
leadership of, 116–17;
reforms under, 122–23
Sagan, Scott D., 6
Saleh, Ali Abdullah, 78
Sanafir, 69
Sanusi, Muhammad, 143
Satellite capabilities, 104
Saudi Arabia: accusations against, 65–67;
attacks on American personnel in, 81;
defense expenditure 2003, 85;
domestic economic and political reform in, 81–84;
Egypt and, 71;
Iran and, 72–74;
Iraq and, 74–77;
Israel and, 68–72;
Kuwait and, 75–76;
missile program of, 66–67;
nuclear option and, 64–65, 84–86;
oil reserves of, 67, 73;
security environment, 67–78;
security guarantees and, 14;
Shiites in, 47, 76;
Soviet Union and, 69, 79;
Sunnis in, 72–73;
U.S. and, 78–81;
Yemen and, 77–78
Schlesinger, James, 94
Scud missiles: attacks against Israel by, 97–98;
Egypt and, 113;
in Gulf War, 104;
Iraq and, 55;
Libya and, 128–29
Security, definition of, 171n.18
Security guarantees: Israel and, 87, 88;
Saudi Arabia and, 79, 85–86;
U.S. and, 14, 149
Security model and acquisition of nuclear weapons: Iran and, 25–33;
Iraq and, 65;
Israel and, 88–89;
Libya and, 132–33;
overview of, 8–9, 148–49;
Saudi Arabia and, 67–78. See also Nuclear weapons, acquisition of
Senate Report on the U.S. Intelligence Community's Prewar Intelligence Assessments on Iraq, 44
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, 144–45
Shah of Iran. See Pahlavi regime
Shamkhani, Ali, 24, 30
Sharon, Ariel, 87, 89, 90, 100
(p.211) Shihab-3 missile system, 24, 30
“Shiite crescent,” 47, 76
Shiite Muslims: in Iran, 26, 36, 72–73;
in Iraq, 27, 46–47;
in Saudi Arabia, 47, 76
Shultz, George, 8
Small Quantities Protocol, 65
Smuggling network, 4
Snyder, Jed, 56
Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. See Libya
Solingen, Etel, 11
Sources, note on, x
South Africa, 2, 12, 92, 158
South Asia, 26
Southeast Asia NWFZ (Declaration on the Denuclearization of Korea), 151, 152
South Korea, 2, 14
South Pacific Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty. See Treaty of Rarotonga
Soviet Union: Baruch plan and, 11;
Egypt and, 112, 113, 116–17, 122;
Iran and, 22;
Iraq and, 51;
Israel and, 93, 94;
Libya and, 129, 135, 142;
NWFZ and, 151;
Saudi Arabia and, 69, 79. See also Russia
Steinberg, Gerald, 103, 156
Steinitz, Yuval, 28
Strait of Bab al-Mandab, 77
Submarine capability, 101
Sudan, 135
Suez Canal, 91, 118
Sumed pipeline, 178n.33
Sunni Muslims: in Afghanistan, 26;
in Iraq, 46;
in Pakistan, 26;
in Saudi Arabia, 72–73
Sweden, 2
Syria, 2, 43, 71, 93–94
Taif Treaty, 77
Taiwan, 2, 14
Tajura nuclear reactor, 129
Takeyh, Ray, 28
Talabani, Jalal, 48
Taliban, 26
Tamsett, Jeremy, 58–59
Technological imperative, 4–5
Terrorism, Libya and, 142–45
Thayer, Bradley, 13
Theoretical model, ix
Third international theory, 135
Tiran, 69
Townsend, Frances Fragos, 80
Treaty of Bangkok (Central Asian Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty), 152. See also Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ)
Treaty of Pelindaba (African Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty), 129, 152, 158. See also Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ)
Treaty of Rarotonga (South Pacific Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty), 152. See also Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ)
Treaty of Tlateloco (Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America;
Latin and Caribbean Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaty), 151, 152. See also Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ)
Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons. See Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT)
Truman, Harry, 122
Turkey, 2, 14, 49, 74
Ukraine, 2, 10, 15
United Kingdom. See Great Britain
United Nations: Independent Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, 14;
Monitoring, Verification, and Inspections Commission (UNMOVIC), 44, 60;
Special Commission (UNSCOM), 44, 59–60
United Nations Security Council (UNSC): Gulf War and, 53;
Iran and, 23;
Israel and, 57;
Libya and, 143–44;
and Nonproliferation Treaty, 7;
Resolution 487, 57;
Resolution 687, 59, 154;
Resolution 1284, 60;
Resolution 1441, 60;
Resolution 1540, 13–14;
U.S. policy and, 15
United States: Egypt and, 122–23;
Gulf War and, 9, 52–53;
Iran and, 20–21, 31–33;
Iraq and, 9, 27, 36, 50–53, 61;
Israel and, 58, 98, 105–7;
Libya and, 127, 141–45;
military presence in Middle East, 9, 25, 26;
nonproliferation policy of, 14–17;
nuclear weapons and, 2;
Saudi Arabia and, 78–81;
security guarantees by, 14, 79, 85–86, 149
USS Stark, 51
UTA Flight 772, 143
(p.212) Vandewalle, Dirk, 140
Vanunu, Mordechai, 102
Weapons of mass destruction (WMD): definition of, 1;
efforts to eliminate, 150–51;
prospects for, 158–60;
World Trade Organization (WTO), 34, 82–83
Yemen, 70, 77–78, 110
Yom Kippur War, 94, 117, 119
Zimmerman, Peter D., 5

(p.213) Gawdat Bahgat is professor of political science and director of the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. He is the author of The Gulf Monarchies: New Economic and Political Realities (1997), The Future of the Gulf (1997), The Persian Gulf at the Dawn of the New Millennium (1999), American Oil Diplomacy in the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea (UPF, 2003), and Israel and the Persian Gulf: Retrospect and Prospec (UPF, 2006). He has also published numerous articles on the Middle East in scholarly journals. His work has been translated into several foreign languages. (p.214) (p.215) (p.216) (p.217) (p.218) (p.219) (p.220)