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From Africa to JamaicaThe Making of an Atlantic Slave Society, 17751807$

Audra A. Diptee

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780813034829

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813034829.001.0001

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(p.119) Appendix

(p.119) Appendix

Thirteen Documents Relating to the Voyage of the Slave Ship African Queen (July 1792–May 1793)

Source:
From Africa to Jamaica
Publisher:
University Press of Florida

These transcribed documents were written to Bristol merchant James Rogers, the owner of the African Queen. The punctuation is generally consistent with the original letters. The spellings are true to the original. Illegible words are indicated by […]. The names of slave ships are italicized for clarity and to provide context to the content of each document. All letters are located in the James Rogers Collection (C107/1–15, 59), housed at the National Archives (Kew Gardens) of the United Kingdom.

(p.120) 1) Hamet Forsyth to James Rogers, July 9th, 1792, C107/13

Context: The captain of the African Queen, Samuel Stribling, has died while the ship is in Africa. The letter is from Hamet Forsyth, who has taken command of the vessel.

Old Calabar 9 July 1792

Mr. James Rogers

Sir,

this my Second and p[er] Ship Fame informing you of her arrival […] 28 June last and receiving her Cargo on Board […] African Queen agreeable to Invoice, likewise your letters, have been Oblidged [sic] to stop Trade five weeks not having a proper assortment of Cloth & then having purchaced [sic] 290 and on trust 160 Slaves, oweing [sic] to the great Mortality dayly [sic] in this river being the sickly time for the year, was fearfull [sic] of having too many Slaves on Board, and provisions for them are very high, at same time giveing [sic] up all hopes of the [ship] Fames Arrival, f[rom] the Acc[ount] of short passages made f[rom] Liverpool, here, the day before her arrival began to rig the A[frican] Queen and should have sailed in three weeks—now meting [sic] with a little longer detention but am in great hopes will not exceed six weeks—their [sic] is now in this river three Liverpool ships—Perceverance, Kitty, & George, and each expect[ing] Tenders dayley [sic] and are in great opposition against each others. Likewise 2 French Ships near the same but flatter myself the ship A[frican] Queen will meet her part much sooner than some of the above mentioned the Copper's are now on Slaves in this river f[rom] 180 to 200. I am very Sorry to inform you of the loss of forty one Negroes besides Cap[tain] Stribling and Nine [white] Men although the Greatest Care and attention has been paid them during their Sickness—at foot have the Acc[ount] of Names—have put on Board the Ship Fran Twenty Pun[cheons] Palm Oil 409 pounds Ivovory [sic] marks AQ […] to 53 being Teeth & Scravelias1 [sic, scrivellos], Men Slave 58 & 1 Man Boy, 128 Women, 11 Girls & 3 Infants being her Compliment [sic] and I have put a sufficient Quantity of all kind of provisions on board for a three months passage & [at the] same time am sorry [I] could not procure more Male slaves, being so scarce oweing [sic] to marching them through the Cuntry [sic] for the Camaroo where they receive a (p.121) greater price for them. Inclosed you have a receipt f[rom] Cap[tain] Jenkins of his Cargoe [sic], which [I] hope will meet good sales.

I remain your Ever Dutiful Serv[ant] H.

Forsyth.

[Deceased]

Cap[tain] Stribling

W[illiam] Stephens

Jno McKinley

Tho[mas] Harvey

Sick

David Aires

Mr. Loyd [sic]

Martin Gibson

Frank Guy

Henery [sic] Watts

Mr. Lang

Tho[mas] Rankin

Jas Wright

William Ames

John Dixon

James Coaks

Tho[mas] Magness

(p.122) 2) William Blake to James Rogers, 11th November 1792, C107/5

Context: Captain Hamet Forsyth is dead. Command of the African Queen has been passed on to John Long. The letter is from Captain William Blake, who was also employed by James Rogers and trading at Old Calabar.

Old Callabar, 11th November 1792

Sir,

This my 5 pr ship African Queen am sorry the ship has buried to [sic] Commanders & the 3rd not fit to Command the ship we here have been obliged to Upoint [sic] Mr. [John] Long to the Command and have bound him to act agreeable with the Doctor & Officers for the good of the Voyage had not the Rodney been here or some other ship this ship must have Totally lost all—the slaves that are on board are some good & some bad the number are 295 300—Am sorry my tender is not arrived shall be obliged to […] my own ship in course of 3 weeks to get Ready if no arivel [sic].

Inclose & Remain your Humble Serv[ant]

William Blake

(p.123) 3) John Shilstone to James Rogers, January 8th 1793, C107/13

Context: The African Queen has anchored at Dominica. The letter is from John Shilstone, captain of the ship Marquis of Worcester.

Dominica January 8th 1793

Mr. James Rogers

Sir,

your [sic] Ship African Queen John Long the present Master Arived [sic] here Last Thursday the 3rd Inst from Old Callabar he wish'd to get some Refreshment for his Slaves I apply'd to the [merchant] house of Frans & Robt Smith who Readyly [sic] Gave all the Assistance in they could sending Directly into the Country for plaintains [sic] Oranges & he said he had plenty of all Other provisions On board had been seven weeks from Old Callabar bury'd the Doctor on the passage as he Did not write himself I desired him On Saturday evening (when I went On board with people to Get him under weigh [sic]) to let me know what Slaves he had brought of [sic] the Coast and how many Bury'd that I might send you word he told me he Brought three Hundred off the Coast had Bury'd forty women twenty Eight men, eight girls and two Boys. I hope you will soon have an Account of her from Jamaica.

I am Sir your Ob[edient] Serv[ant], Jn. Shilstone

(p.124) 4) Francis & Robert Smyth to James Rogers, January 10h 1793, C107/13

Context: Letter is from the Dominican merchant house of Francis & Robert Smyth, which supplied the African Queen with provisions for the captives.

D/que [sic] 10th Janry 1793

James Rogers Esqr

Sir,

We have had this pleasure repeatedly of late & are still without suply [sic] even to the receipt of the Coffee by [ships] Neptune or Lady Aguita—When time will permit you we beg leave to request a few lines in reply—a few days past touched in here on her way to Jamaica your Ship the Affrican [sic] Queen, at present John Long master from Old Callibar [sic] seven weeks out, we supply'd Captain Long with every thing which he stood in need of & Captain Shilstone of the Marquis of Worcester rendered every service in his power—we are sorry to be obliged to say the loss on board the Queen, in whites & Blacks are very considerable we believe the former not less than 30 or 32 & of the latter about 78—the particulars of the latter, Captain Shilstone has given you, as we took the liberty to regard his going on board & giving such advice to the present Captain, formerly third Mate as he deemed necessary on that subject & to whose letter we beg leave to refer you—We have had no Affrican [sic] sales made here for some months past & our opinion is that small parcels from the Windward Coast would command pleasing Sales.

Inclosed with this we transmit the disbursements laid out for the Affrican [sic] Queen Mr. Long master p[er] £50. .5. .8½ currency to your debit in Account. Produce is beginning to lower in price & we think by & by it will come to some kind of a moderate standard—with great regard & due respect

We remain Sir

Your mo[st] ob[edient] s[ervants].

Frans & Robt Smyth

(p.125) 5) John Perry to James Rogers, January 21st, 1793, C107/13

Context: The African Queen has arrived at Jamaica. The letter is from the merchant John Perry, who reports on the condition of the captives.

James Rogers Esq.

Montego Bay 21st Jany 1793

D[ear] Sir,

Your ship African Queen arrived at Martha Brae in great distress a week ago—the Master no doubt will write you concerning his great loss in Sailors & Slaves.

Mr. Cunningham declined to sell her because he daily expected the Pearl with 500 Slaves—Mr. Grant was next applied to, He declined for want of advice & Mr. Wedderburn was next waited upon by Capt. Long who told him he could have nothing to do with his Cargo—In this Situation and the Negroes dying daily, I could not but feel for the Interest of a Gentleman whom I had known so many Years & I volunteer'd my Services the 18th Inst—I went to Mr. Cunningham & told him that rather than your property should remain in such a situation & as I understood the Wasp had actually sold in Grenada I would join him in taking up the Cargo bad as it was reported to be—he readily agreed to this—we then asked Capt Long whether a long or a short day would be most Advantageous for you and it was decided that as the greatest part of the Cargo are very meagre—a long day & good Feeding in the Interim would be most Serviceable [sic] we therefore fix'd for Wednesday 30th Inst in this Harbour. Capt. Hewan of the Brooks who told me that the Wasp had certainly sold at Grenada had also told Mr. Cunningham there could be no doubt the Pearl had also sold to Windward, but on the 20th at Night the Wasp arrivd here & brought an Account of the Pearl being at Barbadoes her Situation and the Captains [sic] further Intentions you no doubt will hear of from thence.

Capt. [Robert] Jones [of the ship Wasp] told me that as his Cargo was now in very good order and would not be better he wished to sell in as few days as possible I therefore fix'd the 28th Inst. Which will not prejudice our sale as we have found by experience in this Town—I have procur'd from the Country a number of provisions for the Negroes when the ship shall come in which she cannot do just now as a great swell at Martha Brae prevents her coming out from thence. After the Sale you will hear more particularly from Mr. Cunningham & myself jointly.

(p.126) We asked the Captain [of African Queen] how many Slaves he had on board the 18th Inst. He answer'd he could not tell exactly, but that he brought 330 from the Coast, & had buried 98—of course we should conclude he had 232 left, but the Land Surveyor who measur'd the Slaves reports only 214.

I shall soon have the pleasure to address you again, mean while [sic] remain D[ear] Sir

Y[our] mo[st] Obed Serv[ant]

John Perry.

(p.127) 6) John Cunningham to James Rogers, January 21st 1793, C107/13

Context: This letter is from the Jamaican merchant John Cunningham, who writes that he will work with merchant John Perry to sell the enslaved on the African Queen.

Messrs James Rogers & Coy

Jamaica Montego Bay, 21st Jany 1793

Gentl[man]

A few days ago your ship the African Queen under the Command of the 3rd Mate Mr. Long arrived at Martha Brae with about 220 slaves—As I expected the Pearl it was not my intention to have sold the Cargo but the other Guinea Factors Mr. Grant, Mr. Wedderburn & others would not take her up by the Mortality Bill she has lost upwards of 100 Slaves and those remaining are the very worst that were ever imported (to my knowledge) into this island being thus situated I requested of Mr. Perry a Gentleman well known in Bristol to Join me in the disposal of the Cargo which he on my Account assented.

Last night the ship Wasp belonging to Mr. Jones arrived with 201 slaves she touched at Barbadoes where she left the Pearl having lost her Master and the Cargo of slaves very sickley [sic]. The Master of the Wasp says that the Pearl had buried 260—these are unfortunate events and your losses must be immense. I sincerely wish you better luck and remain Gentle[man], Your most h[umble] Serv[ant], Jn Cunningham.

(p.128) 7) John Cunningham to James Rogers, February 4th 1793, C107/59

Context: Merchant John Cunningham reporting on the sale of the captives on board the African Queen.

Jamaica Mo Bay 4 February 1793

Messrs James Rogers & Coy

Gentl[man]

Inclosed is a Copy of which I wrote the 21st Ultimo—The ship came to this port & the Sale opened the 30th at £84—with many good purchasers Sorry am I to relate only few could be picked at that rate—Mr. Perry & self agreed to lower on purpose to get off as many as possible the first days sale—we keep [sic] the sale up as much as was in our power untill [sic] the fifth day when we had an offer of £40 p[er] head taking 70—which I was pleased to get—12 sick & very meagre slaves were sold for about £140—the number of slaves sold was 202 the gross amount will be within £200 of eleven thousands [Jamaican] currency—The ship is now preparing to take a light freight of Wood and I have desire [sic] the Master to use all diligence in getting it off and leaving this with all speed.

The Bills for the Cargo will be 18, 24 & 30 months. This is the usual time here at present indeed we were obliged to give very long time so as to induce the purchasers to take them of [sic] our hands.

I am Gentl[man],

Your most Ob[edient] Serv[ant],

Jn Cunningham.

(p.129) 8) John Perry to James Rogers, February 5th 1793, C107/59

Context: Merchant John Perry reporting on the sale of the captives on board the African Queen.

James Rogers Esqr (Triplicate)

Montego Bay, 5th February 1793

Dear Sir,

Mr. Cunningham being gone to Trelawny I embrace this opportunity to advise you that in four days we closed the sale of your very bad Cargo of Negroes p[er] African Queen as p[er] enclosed abstract—bad as it is it is near £7 p[er] head more than we estimated them at the day before the sale began, but we stretched the price considerably by giving 2 and 3 years Credit.

The Ship will sail in about a week by whom [I] shall write you again and more particularly, [in the] interim [I] remain very respectfully.

Dear Sir

Your most Ob[edient] Serv[ant]

John Perry

(p.130) 9) Record of Sale for Captives on the African Queen, March 10th 1793, C107/59

Sales of Two hundred and two slaves Imported in the ship African Queen John Long Master from Calabar on the Coast of Africa, sold here by John Cunningham & John Perry on Account of James Rogers of Bristol.

[Table on pages 131–33]

Errors Excepted. Jamaica Montego Bay 10th March 1793

Jn. Cunningham, John Perry

Note: During this period, financial calculations were made in pounds, shillings, and pennies: 20 shillings (s) = £1; 12 pennies (d) = 1 shilling. The sales and prices listed above were in Jamaican currency. Based on calculations below, £1.4 Jamaican = £1 Sterling. Olsen, Daily Life, 189. (p.131)

Date

To whom sold

Men

Men Boys

Boys

Women

Women Girls

Girls

Total

Amount £.s.d

Jany 30

Robert Morris

3 @ £84

3 @ £70

6

462

Alexr Stepn Findlater

2 @ 84

2 @ £53

1 @ 84

3 @ £55

8

523

Joseph M. Harris

1 @ 84

1 @ 80

1 @ 84

3

248

Alexr Nicoll

2 @ 84

1 @ 80

3

248

ditto

1 @ 70

1

70

Obid Boyce

1 @ 84

2 @ 80

2 @ 60 &

5

369

65

ditto

2 @ 65

2

130

John Mc Farlane

1 @ 84

2 @ 84

1 @ 60

4

312

ditto

1 @ 50

50

Duncan Anderson

2 @ 80

1 @ 80

3

240

ditto

1 @ 70

1

70

Jany 30

John Perry

3 @ 84

3

252

Thomas Roberts

1 @ 84

2 @ 84

3

252

ditto

1 @ 70

1 @ 60

2

130

David McCulloch

1 @ £82

1 @ 80

1 @ 84

3

246

ditto

1 @ 60

1 @ 45

2

105

George Kimber

1 @ 84

2 @ 82

1 @ 53

4

301

William Taylor

3 @ 84

3

252

ditto

2 @ 70

2

140

ditto

1 @ 60

1

60

Andrew McLean

1 @ 70

3 @ 84

1 @ 60

5

382

Elizabeth Stermett

1 @ 70

1 @ 70

2

140

Jany 30

Green Pond Estate

4 @ 68

3 @ 60

3 @ 66

10

650

William Simpson

1 @ 65

1

65

John Roberts

2 @ 53

3 @ 55

5

271

Stephen Laurence

1 @ 55

2 @ 55

3

165

George Cathrens

1 @ 50

1

50

Alexr B. Hay

2 @ 60

1 @ 55

3

175

Jany 31st

Charles Hill

1 @ 55

1

55

Elizabeth Allen

1 @ 53

1 @ 53

2

106

John Pinder

6 @ 55

3 @ 46

6 @ 55

3 @ 46

18

936

John Stinnett

3 @ 55

3 @ 55

6

330

James Leonard

1 @ 60

1

60

John & Wm Gilzean

1

1

2

108

Feby 2

N. Gray, G. Gray, T.

23

5

37

5

70

2,800

Leigh & C Younger

Sold at Vendue by Jn

3

7

1

1

12

143.14.11

Anderson

Total

65

4

31

74

1

27

202

10,896.14.11

[Costs Incurred during Sale]

[Total in £.s.d]

[£]

[s]

[d]

[Total Income from Captives Sold]

10,896.14.11

To our Commission on . . . . £10,896.14.11

To deduct sale duty on 44 males […] not allowed by the

540

8

9

purchasers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . £88.00.00

To say 5p. Cent Commission on this Sum. . . £10,808.14.11

To Sale duty on 44 males as above being refuse and not p'ble [sic] by purchasers

88

To Import duty on 100 Males @ 13/4. . . . [£.s.d] 66.13.4

To Import duty on 103 females @ 6/8. . . . [£.s.d] 34.6.8

101

To paid Robert Walker for a room to sell the slaves in

8

8

4

To paid James Farmin for printing hand Bills and Advert'g Sale

2

10

To paid David McHardie for advert'g at Martha Brae

10

To paid the Searcher for measuring Slaves

2

15

To paid Doct'r Haddon for attending the Ship

9

16

[Total Charges]

753

8

1

753.8.1

N[et] Proceeds carried to Current

10,143.6.10

(p.132) (p.133)

(p.134) 10) James Rogers Esquire in Account Current with John Cunningham & John Perry, C107/59

[Jamaican currency]

[£]

[s]

[d]

1793 March 10th

To Amount of African Queens [sic] disbursements

380

3

2

To Our Commission on £10,143.6.10 for returns @ 5 p. cent

507

3

4

To John Cunninghams Bills on […] Hugh Ingram

@ 18 months sight. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1105.14.5

4,628

0

2

To Ditto on Ditto at 24 months . . . .1100

To Ditto on Ditto at 30 ditto . . . . . . 1100

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stg 3305.14.5

To John Perrys [sic] Bills on William Seyer at 18 months sight.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100

4,628

0

2

To ditto on ditto at 24 months . . . . .1105.14.5

To ditto on ditto at 30 ditto. . . . . . . 1100

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stg 3,305.14.5

10,143

6

10

By N[et] Proceeds of 202 Slaves imported in the Ship

African Queen as p[er] Amount Sales

10,143

6

10

Errors Excepted. Jamaica, Montego Bay, 10th March 1793

Jn. Cunningham, John Perry

Note: For information on currencies, see note on Letter 9.

(p.135) 11) Anonymous author to James Rogers, 1793, C107/59

202 slaves imported in the African Queen sold for £10,143 Jamaica Currency equal to £7,245 Sterg.

The coast comm[ission]. of £4 in £108 is £268.6.8 Sterg.2

Of which Capn [Samuel] Stribling having purchased 60 slaves is entitled to £79.14.00

& Mr. [Hamet] Forsyth having purchased remainder to £188.12.8

August 9—Mr. Forsyth in lieu of the above £65.9. being the N[et] average of 2 slaves, which he was entitled to as mate had he lived to the West Indies.

Fame's Sales £3,424.6.4—the Comm[ission] of [£]4 p[er]. [£]104 on which is £134.5.8.3

African Queen's p. £10,143 Curry equal to £7,245 Sterg Comm[ission] [£]4 in [£]108 is [£]268.6.8

Note: For information on currencies, see note on Letter 9.

(p.136) 12) John Cunningham & John Perry to James Rogers, March 10th 1793, C107/594

Montego Bay, 10th March 1793

James Rogers Esqr.

Dr Sir,

We now hand you Account Sales, ships disbursements, and account Currents of all our transactions on acc[ount] of the African Queens [sic] Cargo of slaves with Six Setts Bills of Exchange—Viz.

John Perry on W[illiam] Seyer

At 18 months sight

£1100

D[itto]—24 m[onths]

£1105.14.5

D[itto]—30 m[onths]

£1100

£3305.14.5 £3305.14.5

John Cunningham on Robt & Hugh Ingram

At

18 months sight

1105.14.5

D[itto]

24 ditto

1100

D[itto]

30 ditto

1000

3305.14.5

£3305.14.5

£6611. 8.10

Amount in all say six thousand six hundred and eleven pounds 8/10 Sterling.

We also think it our duty to communicate to you some part of Mr. Long's Conduct while here, at least such part as we consider reprehensible. Herewith are the particulars of four separate Accounts—the amount is charged in the ships [sic] disbursements, but in your settling with him a considerable part will be a charge against him more we fear than all his allowance will come to. In Mr. Angus Account no. 4 you will see a Credit of £33—for 12 B[arrels] provisions sold by Long to Angus. The day we completed the sale of slaves Mr. Long was desired to send to the Counting House an account of what provisions were on Board that we should sell the surplus, after reserving a sufficient quantity for ships [sic] use. Accordingly next day he gave a memo[randum] of having what he termed more than sufficient 27 Bushels beans, 3 […] bread and two B[arrels] herrings, some beans and loose Bread was delivered to the Gentlemen who purchased the last 70 slaves the remainder we ordered to the Vendue store—Ten or Twelve days after that we learned that Long had (unknown to us) Sold to Angus at an under value several Barrels of provisions. We went on Board & asked him (p.137) if he had sold any provisions he told us that he had only sold 2 Barrels at 50 p. whereas he had sold 12 Barrels Beef and pork & 2 Barrels herrings & had taken up a good deal of the amount. A few days after that 3 B[arrels] flour & 7 B[arrels] Pease was sent on shore for sale this must appear strange when you see a charge £26.16.4 in Ships [sic] Account for a stoppage of seamans allowance and from the n[et] Proceeds as p[er] account herewith you may guess the state in which bread flour & pease were landed. Yesterday he landed 3 […] more of Bread and 2 B[arrels] pork saying that he did not know they were on Board, having inquired of the Mate he informed that they were on the Deck for a week & if he (the Mate) had not borrowed a boat they never would have been sent on shore. The proceeds of the Bread, flour and pease will be sent to you by the first opportunity. In short you will soon see that the man is an Idiot—& that your property has been sacrificed to his weakness. We consider ourselves very fortunate to have procured so valuable a man as Mr. Herd to go Chief Mate, as Saunders is but a Boy.

On Board of the ship is a Negro boy of about 16 he was put on Board on the Coast as a Pawn & we thought it advisable not to sell him. There is a little freight on Board the shippers are greatly disappointed there is no more, as Captn Long undertook his ship should carry four times as much.

From what you have been before advised respecting the slaves we hope you will be satisfied with the sales we did our best. The Gentlemen who purchased the remains of the Cargo, we are sorry to remark cannot boast of their bargain. they have Buried 8 or 10 and sold only about 25.

We wish you better luck with the ship another time. It appears that nothing has gone right since the Death of Captn Stribling & Mr. Forsyth.

We remain very respectfully,

Dear Sir, Your very H[umble] Serv[ants]

Jn Cunningham

John Perry

(p.138) 13) 2 Letters to James Rogers, C107/595

—12 March [1793]

With much ado we got your ship away yesterday—it was almost a coercive work being obliged to send the pilot off ourselves to get her under weigh [sic] nolens volens.

—Mssrs Saryenh Chambers & Co.

Bristol 2 May 1793

Sirs,

I have this day received the three Inclosed Bills on account of Jas Rogers's ship African Queen for £3305.14.5 on Robt & Hugh Ingram which please get accepted, or if refused, let those be noted & protested in order to be sent out to Jamaica for father [sic] Security; the same such on account of this ship is drawn on a person in Bristol.

I am Sirs Your Most Ob[edient] Serv[ant]

I.A. (p.139)

Table A.1. Captives Transported to Jamaica, 1751–1775

Jamaica

Embarked in Africa

Disembarked in Jamaica

Entered the Jamaican slave-labor system

1751–1755

58,900

48,700

39,700

1756–1760

43,200

36,100

29,200

1761–1765

56,000

46,700

37,700

1766–1770

48,500

34,600

27,900

1771–1775

80,800

66,100

53,400

Total

287,400

232,200

187,900

Note: These numbers account for captives brought to Jamaica on any European ship. Approximately 98 percent of them were transported on British slave ships. For calculation purposes, numbers were rounded to the nearest hundred. Estimates on the number of captives who actually entered the Jamaican slave-labor system factor in that 5 percent of the captives who disembarked in Jamaica were dead before they could be sold and that a percentage of those calculated to have survived were re-exported to other islands (see chapter 1). Between 1751 and 1775, approximately 15 percent of captives were transported to other islands. Between 1776 and 1808, those who were transported accounted for about 18 percent. Calculations are based on the Herbert Klein and Roderick McDonald studies cited in chapter 1, note 10. For an innovative study that discusses the demography among enslaved populations in the Caribbean (including their re-exportation), see Eltis and Lachance, “Demographic Decline.”

Table A.2. Captives Transported to Jamaica, 1776–1808

Jamaica

Embarked in Africa

Disembarked in Jamaica

Entered the Jamaican slave-labor system

1776–1780

45,100

40,000

31,100

1781–1785

59,100

53,200

41,400

1786–1790

49,100

44,000

34,300

1791–1795

102,700

93,600

72,900

1796–1800

78,400

71,100

55,400

1801–1805

44,200

39,300

30,600

1806–1808

33,300

29,600

23,100

Total

411,900

370,800

288,800

Note: See note for table A.1.

(p.140)

Table A.3. Percentage of Captive Men, Women, and Children Transported on British Ships, 1751–1808

British Slave Ships

Men

Women

Children

1751–1775

44%

24%

32%

Boys (18%)

Girls (14%)

1776–1800

52%

30%

18%

Boys (10%)

Girls (8%)

1801–1808

56%

27%

17%

Boys (9%)

Girls (8%)

Note: Not all records had data on children, so the sample size for each period varied. The 1750–1775 data on children were derived from the records of 2.1 percent of all known voyages for the period (72 voyages); the 1776–1800 data on children were derived from the records of 22.4 percent of all known voyages for the period (588 voyages); and the 1800–1808 data on children were derived from the records of 0.9 percent of all known voyages for the period (9 voyages).

(p.141)

Table A.4. Areas of Provenance for Captives Shipped to Jamaica in the Eighteenth Century

Areas of Provenance

1726–1750

1751–1775

1776–1800

Bight of Biafra

28.7%

30.4%

41.8%

Gold Coast

28.0%

31.9%

24.6%

West Central Africa

21.3%

9.4%

18.1%

Bight of Benin

6.5%

10.3%

6.5%

Sierra Leone

3.4%

15.0%

7.2%

Senegambia

3.2%

2.0%

1.0%

Other

9.0%

0.8%

0.8%

Note: The category “West Central Africa” is problematic, as it does not reflect geographic nuances of the region south of Cape Lopez (in modern-day Gabon). However, the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database (TSTD) includes the statistical data for slaving areas south of Cape Lopez under this category. There are a number of challenges in accurately disaggregating the statistics, and so for simplicity the term will be used here. Also, the TSTD provides statistics for “Sierra Leone” and the “Windward Coast.” The latter term is also a problematic one. It was a nautical term used by British ship captains but had little meaning to Africans from that region. In this study, any relevant statistics for Sierra Leone include those for the region that the TSTD refers to as the “Windward Coast.”

Table A.5. Percentage of Ships at Ports of Disembarkation in Jamaica, 1751–1808

Kingston

Montego Bay

Other

Port unspecified

1751–1775

48.4%

2.7%

1.9%

47.0%

1776–1800

62.3%

11.3%

4.4%

22.0%

1801–1808

86.6%

6.8%

1.6%

5.0%

(p.142)

Notes:

(1.) Scravelias ([sic], scrivellos) is a reference to elephant tusks of small size. Special thanks to Robin Law for his assistance.

(2.) The captain of the African Queen earned a “coast commission” of £4 on every £108 made from the sale of the captives (minus associated costs).

(3.) James Rogers was a co-owner of the slave ship Fame.

(4.) There are two copies of the letter of John Cunningham and John Perry to James Rogers on March 10, 1793. A few of the words are different, but the content is essentially the same. One seems to be the original and the other a rewritten copy.

(5.) These two letters were scribbled at the end of one of the copies of the previous letter.