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Hillforts of the Ancient AndesColla Warfare, Society, and Landscape$

Elizabeth N. Arkush

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780813035260

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813035260.001.0001

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(p.227) Appendix Additional Tables

(p.227) Appendix Additional Tables

Source:
Hillforts of the Ancient Andes
Publisher:
University Press of Florida

Table A.1. Te largest houses (diameters in the top decile) are at higher average altitudes or on more defensible sides of a pukara

Cerro Minas Pata (AR5)

Houses 〈 4.2 m

≥ 4.2 m

n

128

15

Mean altitude

4,072

4,077

Mann-Whitney U

640

Wilcoxon W

8896

Z statistic

−2.108

Signifcance (two-tail)

0.035

Cerro K’akru (AS3)

Houses 〈 4.3 m

≥ 4.3 m

n

225

25

Mean easting (WGS ʻ84)

359980

359904

Mann-Whitney U

2181

Wilcoxon W

2506

Z statistic

−1.841

Sig. (two-tail)

0.066

Cerro Inka (AZ3)

Houses 〈 4.2 m

≥ 4.2 m

n

151

16

Mean altitude

4,158

4,170

Mann-Whitney U

461

Wilcoxon W

11937

Z statistic

−4.062

Sig. (two-tail)

0.000

Ayawiri (Machu Llaqta, V2)

Houses 〈4 m

≥ 4 m

n

549

58

Mean northing (WGS ʻ84)

8249721

8249674

Mann-Whitney U

11834

Wilcoxon W

13545

Z statistic

−3.218

Sig. (two-tail)

0.001

Cerro Pukara (V3)

Houses ≤ 4.5 m

〉 4.5 m

n

210

23

Mean altitude

4,567

4,586

Mann-Whitney U

1621.5

Wilcoxon W

23776

Z statistic

−2.586

Sig. (two-tail)

0.01

Note: The Mann-Whitney test is used rather than the more common T-test, because house altitudes have a nonparametric distribution. Test performed in SPSS.

(p.228) (p.229)

Table A.2. Pukara size categories and related attributes

Category

Site

Habitation area (ha)

Walled area (ha)

House, storage structures

Number of tombs

Tombs located

Total wall volume (m3)

Wall strength index (m2)b

Parapets

Streets

Altitude (m)

Ascent time, GIS (min.)

Est. time to water (min.)

Viewshed within 25-km radius (km2)

Distance to nearest visible pukara (km)

Visible pukaras within 10 km

Visible pukaras within 20 km

Type 1 “Empty” refuges

AZ5

0

5.5

0

∼10

Both

1,390

3.6

4,040

36

20

175

7.0

2

12

J12

0

2.2

0

∼5

Inside

300

0.8

4,080

40

35

345

0.8

2

3

P34

0

1.6

0

13

Both

250

1.5

4,100

32

20

156

2.0

4

4

V1

0

1.6

0

2

Both

440

1.6

4,030

33

15

196

5.7

1

3

Mean

0

0

∼15

595

1.9

4,063

35

23

218

3.9

2.3

5.5

Median

0

0

370

1.6

4,060

34.5

20

186

3.9

2

3.5

Type 2 Very small pukaras

P35

0.05

7.0

2

0

220

0.3

4,110

30

20

116

5.2

9

10

P36

0.1

1.7

4

Inside

1,300

7.4

4,070

29

10

127

3.9

5

9

AY1

0.25

2.0

0

400

3.0

4,050

33

?

198

9.0

0

0

PKP1

0.25

4.1

0

650

1.4

4,230

47

30

437

0.5

4

12

P32

0.3

12.0

3

Outside

6,630

7.8

4,330

48

40

251

8.4

2

3

P29

0.5

1.3

16

Outside

880

5.0

X

3,950

36

35

75

2.0

1

2

PKP4

0.6

2.3

0

500

3.0

4,050

36

15

194

1.2

2

3

PKP2

0.7

2.5

〉10

Inside

1,160

17.4

4,080

41

15

206

0.5

3

6

mean

0.3

∼4

1,468

5.7

4,109

38

24

200

3.8

3.3

5.6

median

0.3

765

4.0

4,075

36

20

196

3.0

2.5

4.5

Type 3 Small pukaras

PKP6

1.3

4.0

∼20

Both

2,730

10.9

X

4,170

44

40

266

3.8

4

6

L2

1.7

2.0

3

Both

740

2.8

3,950

31

10

177

2.6

1

3

L1

1.9

6.5

46

5

Both

2,690

4.5

4,060

38

0

188

6.3

2

7

N3

2.0

4

6

Both

1,660

4.2

4,070

39

20

148

2.4

2

6

S2

2.0

10

65

Both

3,840

7.2

X

4,060

28

35

271

2.4

7

10

P37b

2.0

3

8

Both

270

0.5

3,990

32

15

93

2.5

6

6

J11

2.1

10.0

0

2,640

13.2

X

4,060

42

30

335

0.8

2

3

PKP7

2.1

15.0

23

∼15

Inside

5,200

15.6

X

4,260

49

0

337

7.7

3

6

AR1

2.2

1.3

∼30

Both

200

1.0

3,970

35

20

109

3.5

5

6

CA1

2.2

4.0

∼10?

both

1,070

1.3

X

4,010

33

15

122

4.3

0

1

mean

2.0

∼16

2,104

6.1

4,060

37

19

205

3.6

3.2

5.4

median

2.0

2,150

4.3

4,060

37

18

183

3.1

2.5

6.0

Type 4 Medium pukaras

PKP3

2.5

6.8

∼25

Both

960

1.6

4,190

46

5

353

0.9

4

7

L6

2.8

8.5

232

〉120

Both

6,890

19.3

X

X

4,220

44

30

213

4.1

4

7

AR5

3.0

10.0

261

17

Both

1,520

1.5

4,080

38

20

260

3.5

1

3

PKP8

3.0

6.0

∼60

Both

3,420

16.0

X

4,200

46

25

228

2.2

4

8

AS5

3.1

7.5

158

∼55

Both

3,080

4.9

X

4,040

33

15

153

3.8

3

5

L3

3.1

15.0

〉60

Inside

3,980

11.4

X

X

4,190

43

0

456

2.6

4

12

AR4

3.5

34

219

0

7,350

5.9

4,350

56

45

552

2.6

6

15

AZ4

3.5

6.0

143

0

5,200

10.4

X

4,210

39

20

206

1.0

4

7

J10

3.5

8.5

∼25

Both

2,230

2.5

X

4,130

38

0

538

8.1

3

4

S3

3.8

8.0

∼70

Both

4,030

13.4

4,120

36

60

386

2.4

10

16

mean

3.2

∼50

3,866

8.7

4,173

42

22

334

3.1

4.3

8.4

median

3.1

3,700

8.1

4,190

41

20

306

2.6

4.0

7.0

Type 5 Large pukaras

AZ3

3.4

5.3

325

39

Both

6,140

11.7

X

4,170

44

25

162

8.8

2

5

S4

4.8

5.25

24

Both

4,850

15.4

X

X

4,010

35

10

318

4.3

5

11

AS4

5.5

18.0

∼40?

Inside

8,800

18.9

X

4,100

39

30

209

1.9

6

10

AS1

5.6

15.0

∼15

Inside

8,030

10.2

X

X

4,120

37

5

317

3.8

5

13

V2

5.8

13.0

1116

∼115

Inside

3,330

15.4

X

X

4,120

39

15

170

4.3

1

3

CA2

7.6

26.0

555

10

Inside

580

6.5

X

4,200

44

40

503

4.2

1

4

AS3

8.2

22.5

324

2

Inside

15,470

7.8

X

4,120

35

20

312

2.5

8

11

L4

9.0

23.0

∼10

Inside

14,620

11.1

X

4,250

50

0

136

3.2

3

7

AZ1

9.8

13.5

∼15

Inside

9,620

18.5

X

4,090

39

5

191

2.0

6

14

V3

12.6

100.0

302

8

Inside

4,870

5.6

X

4,630

76

0

264

13

0

3

PKP5

15.0

35.0

2

Inside

2,770

1.7

4,340

57

60

504

3.8

8

11

N2

18.0

40.0

?

Both

27,190

25.9

X

4,300

52

20

469

2.4

1

8

mean

8.8

∼25

8,856

12.4

4,204

46

19

296

4.5

3.8

8.3

median

7.9

7,085

11.4

4,145

42

18

288

3.8

4.0

9.0

a Cross-sectional wall area (average height x thickness) x the number of walls.

(b) the size of ceramic scatter at P37 is about 7 ha, but only about 2 ha has Late Intermediate period ceramics (the majority are Formative).

(p.230) (p.231) (p.232)

Table A.3. Radiocarbon dates for pukaras of the Colla area

Phase

Lab No.

Site

Context

Material

Age BP

S13C

Cal dates AD (1 sigma)

Cal dates AD (2 sigma)

pre-Late Intermediate period

AA12871

AS1

Midden, top

Charcoal

2510 ±125

−23.9

794–414 BC

902–376 BC

AA12872

AS1

Midden, base

Charcoal

2520 ± 30

−23.2

788–589 BC

795–521 BC

AA54218

AS3

Defensive wall (bad date?)a

Grass

1370 ± 100

−25.9

560–780

435–890

Late Intermediate Period I

AA54233

AZ4

Poss. house 2 floor

Charcoal

955 ± 35

(−25)

1020–1160

1015–1165

AA54220

AZ4

Defensive wall

Grass

813 ±81

−23.2

1070–1285

1025–1300

AA54248

P29

Terrace fill

Charcoal

896 ± 40

−22.7

1040–1210

1025–1220

AA54237

P29

Midden

Charcoal

830 ± 35

−24.1

1165–1260

1070–1280

AA54254

P29

Terrace fill

Charcoal

815 ±44

−24.21

1190–1275

1065–1290

AA54246

L2

Midden

Charcoal

766 ± 46

−23.9

1220–1285

1185–1300

Late Intermediate Period IIA

AA54247

L6

Fill below house

Charcoal

679 ± 34

−23.9

1280–1390

1275–1395

AA12875

L6

House floor and below

Charcoal

780 ± 65

−24.5

1190–1295

1040–1390

AA12876

L6

Midden outside house

Charcoal

725 ± 80

−23.9

1215–1390

1155–1410

AA54226

N2

Defensive wall

Grass

709 ± 34

−24.4

1270–1380

1240–1390

AA54245

L2

Terrace fill

Charcoal

671± 34

−22.6

1280–1390

1275–1395

AA12874

L2

Midden

Charcoal

580 ± 60

−23

1300–1415

1295–1435

AA56163

S4

Fill below hearth

Charcoal

680 ± 30

−22.8

1280–1385

1275–1395

AA56162

S4

Hearth inside house

Charcoal

670 ± 30

−24.9

1280–1390

1280–1395

AA54249

S4

Midden

Charcoal

652 ± 43

−27.3

1290–1390

1280–1405

AA54255

S4

Terrace fill

Charcoal

591 ± 44

−24.04

1305–1405

1295–1420

AA54252

CA2

House floor

Charcoal

651±37

−24.38

1295–1390

1280–1400

AA54234

CA2

House floor

Charcoal

615 ±35

−24.9

1300–1395

1295–1405

AA54231

AS5

House floor

Charcoal

656 ± 34

−24.8

1290–1390

1280–1400

AA54242

AS5

Poss. house floor

Charcoal

596 ± 34

−23.7

1305–1405

1295–1415

AA54243

AS5

Fill below house

Charcoal

650 ± 34

−23.7

1295–1390

1285–1400

AA54241

AS1

Fill below house

Charcoal

631 ± 34

−24.6

1300–1395

1290–1405

AA54229

PKP7

Defensive wall

Grass

639 ± 47

−22.6

1295–1395

1280–1405

AA54228

PKP7

Defensive wall

Grass

565 ± 34

−24.3

1320–1420

1300–1430

AA12873

AZ1

House I floor

Charcoal

545 ± 85

−23.2

1305–1440

1280–1620

AA54244

AZ1

Fill below house 2

Charcoal

623 ± 34

−23.6

1300–1395

1295–1405

AA54232

AZ1

House 2 floor

Charcoal

530 ± 47

−23.9

1325–1440

1300–1450

Late Intermediate Period IIB

AA54221

J10

Defensive wall

Grass

516 ±41

−22.2

1335–1440

1305–1455

AA54223

Jll

Defensive wall

Grass

525 ± 34

−24.6

1335–1435

1320–1445

AA54222

Jll

Defensive wall

Grass

487 ± 40

−17.3

1405–1445

1330–1480

AA54217

AS1

Defensive wall

Grass

427± 70

−25.2

1415–1625

1400–1645

AA54219

AS3

Defensive wall

Grass

502 ± 35

−24.2

1405–1440

1325–1455

AA54225

N2

Defensive wall

Grass

486 ± 38

−23.6

1410–1445

1330–1480

AA54235

N2

Exterior use surface

Charcoal

510 ±34

−24.2

1405–1440

1325–1450

AA54236

N2

House floor

Charcoal

491 ± 34

−22.7

1410–1445

1330–1470

AA54253

N2

House floor

Charcoal

435 ± 42

−23.83

1425–1485

1405–1630

AA12877

N2

Poss. floor

Charcoal

405 ± 90

−23.5

1430–1635

1325–1670

AA54227

PKP2

Defensive wall

Grass

455 ± 34

−11

1420–1470

1405–1490

AA54251

AZ4

Hearth below house 1

Charcoal

383 ± 59

−23.95

1440–1630

1435–1640

Note: Calibration using OxCal v3.8 (calibration curve based on atmospheric data from Stuiver et al. 1998).

(a) Compare this date, for the middle wall, with sample AA54219 from the outer wall at the same site, which was in line with other pukara wall dates. The two walls are similar in condition and appearance.

(p.233) (p.234)