The concluding chapter explores key findings of the study of Israeli and Palestinian peace and justice activism in the second intifada. Despite the lack of coverage of civil society peace efforts in the mainstream media, a number of activist groups built what one called an “infrastructure for peace”. Changes in the socio-political landscape impacted, and were impacted by, the actions of peace and justice movements, as the shift in activist strategies between 2004–2005 and 2008 illustrates. Successful groups were grounded in relationships of equality and mutuality and tended to use democratic processes such as consensual decision-making practices that create space for pluralism and constructive engagement with divergent views. Group characteristics, such as “joint” or “uninational,” or organizational form mattered less in regard to group orientation to change and degree of pluralism than did group process and orientation to peace works versus peace words. Most of the groups studied sought to reconfigure power relationships as well as boundaries of difference that created both “internal” and “external” “Others”. The chapter offers lessons for the policy making community and its efforts for peace.
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