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Reconstructing Racial Identity and the African Past in the Dominican Republic$

Kimberly Eison Simmons

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780813036755

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: January 2012

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813036755.001.0001

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(p.121) Appendixes

(p.121) Appendixes

Source:
Reconstructing Racial Identity and the African Past in the Dominican Republic
Publisher:
University Press of Florida

Appendix A. Santiago Population Census by Gender, 1903

National Groups by Gender

Population

Dominican Men

4,775

Dominican Women

5,624

Spanish Men

60

Spanish Women

31

French Men

4

French Women

7

English Men

3

English Women

0

German Men

1

German Women

0

Belgian Men

1

Belgian Women

0

Danish Men

2

Danish Women

1

Dutch Men

2

Dutch Women

1

Italian Men

33

Italian Women

0

Arab Men

113

Arab Women

80

Chinese Men

2

Chinese Women

0

American Men

64

American Women

28

Cuban Men

23

Cuban Women

13

Haitian Men

31

Haitian Women

20

Venezuelan Men

1

Venezuelan Women

1

Mexican Men

1

Mexican Women

1

source: 1903 Census of Santiago. Archivo Histórico de Santiago. Translated as presented by Kimberly Eison Simmons.

Note: Appendix A clearly shows the diversity that existed in Santiago during the early 1900s, with attention to nationality and gender.

(p.122) Appendix B. 1916 Santiago Census

Santiago de los Caballeros

Total Population in Santiago 14,774

Gender

Nationality

Religion

Women

Men

Dominican

Foreign

Catholic

Other

8,077

6,697

13,167

1,607

14,303

471

Note: Appendix B represents the gender, nationality, and religious background of the population in Santiago in 1916, thirteen years after the first Santiago census.

Appendix C. Nationality of Resident Foreigners in the City of Santiago de los Caballeros in 1916

Nationality

Population

North American

629

Haitian

388

Arab

184

Puerto Rican

104

Spanish

60

Italian

49

English

37

Chinese

21

French

18

Cuban

16

Belgian

13

German

10

Venezuelan

5

Danish

4

Dutch

3

Colombian

2

Mexican

1

TOTAL

1,607

source: Archivo Histórico de Santiago. Compiled and translated by Kimberly Eison Simmons.

(p.123) Appendix D. Race in the First National Census, 1920

Total Population 894,665

Racial Category

Number

Percentage

Blancos/White

(Dominicans and Foreigners)

223,144

24.9

Mestizos/Mixed

(Including Amarillos/Asians)

444,587

49.7

Negros/Black

(Including 28,258 Haitians)

226,934

25.4

Note: Generally in the provinces, the number of whites in the cities is higher than in the campo (rural area). Haitians account for 3.2 percent of the population. Compiled and translated by Kimberly Eison Simmons.

Appendix E. “We Need Immigrants”

The following commentary was published in 1930 with the heading “We Need Immigrants” and articulates the “need” for a certain “type” of immigrants.

… Como no podemos traer todos esos inmigrantes, de un sólo golpe, podríamos, en cambio, seleccionar un grupo de ellos y dar principio en seguida, sin fabulosos gastos, a la obra de poblar nuestro suelo de gente sana, honrada y trabajadora, tan necesaria para aumentar la riqueza el poder y el bienestar de nuestra Patria.

Y de ninguna parte podríamos traer mejor gente que de España. El inmigrante español, por afinidad de raza, religión e idioma, es el que mejor liga hace con nuestro pueblo, y es, por lo tanto, el que más nos conviene.

No hablaremos más del importante problema de que nos libraría automáticamente el fomento de esta inmigración. No hablaremos de que ella evitaría la lamentable despoblación de nuestra tierra, para pasar a hacer una consideración de otro importante mal de que nos libraría también la llegada al país del elemento sano y tabajador [sic] de que venimos hablando.

Este mal, es la lamentable “haitianización” de que estamos siendo víctimas. Todos saben que la inmigración haitiana ha llegado a tomar tal incremento, que constituye un peligro cierto para nuestra personalidad latina, para la fisonomía de nuestro pueblo, para la Patria, en fin, dejando a un lado las insinuaciones Pues bien [sic]; sabido esto, sale al paso en seguida una de las más apreciables ventajas de la inmigración (p.124) a que primero nos referimos. Poniendo a estos inmigrantes como barrera en los campos cercanos a nuestro límite occidental, queda suprimida la invasión.

Source: El Diario, January 15, 1930, from the Lineas Editoriales section entitled “Necesitamos Inmigrantes,” front page. Archivo Histórico de Santiago.

(… Since we cannot bring all those immigrants, at one time, we could, however, select a group of them quickly, without much expense, working to populate our land of healthy, honest, and hard-working people, as it is necessary to increase the wealth, the power, and the well-being of our Homeland.

And there is no other place we could bring a better people than from Spain. The Spanish immigrant, for likeness of race, religion, and language, is the best combination with our people, and, therefore, is the one that we need.

We won't speak anymore of the important problem this would automatically liberate us from [as] a result of this immigration. We won't mention that it would prevent the unfortunate depopulation of our land, to continue to make a consideration of the importance that we would be liberated by the arrival in our country of the healthy element and work ethic that we are talking about.

This bad [situation] is the unfortunate “haitianizacion” that we are falling victim to. Everyone knows that the Haitian immigration, over time, has created certain danger for our Latin personality, for the physical features of our community, for the Homeland, in short, now then leaving aside the insinuations; knowing this, let's move quickly toward the advantages of the immigration to which we first referred. By placing these immigrants as barriers in the rural areas near our western border, the invasion is suppressed.

(p.125) Appendix F. Desired Immigration

Below is my translation of a memo written by Trujillo in 1939 discussing “desired” immigration and the “need” to “whiten” certain areas that are “too dark”:

The Supreme Boss and Director

of the Dominican Party

Memo

The Honorable Mr. President of

the Republic

It is evident that the populations located in or close to the border need injection of new blood, especially of the white race.

I recommend that the Secretaries of State of the Interior and of Agriculture, Industry and Work make an agreement to send to those populations those people of Jewish race or foreigners of other races that want to leave to work in agriculture as branches of trade. They could also send professionals, doctors, etc. who could cooperate in the rising of the level of those populations in that to patriotism and development of their natural wealth it is necessary.

I believe that this can be very beneficial to the Dominican Republic, and I also believe that the Government should lend every type of help in the gradual development of this plan, the one which [I] allow myself to recommend to the consideration and comprehension of the gentleman President of the Republic.

Rafael L. Trujillo

Ciudad Trujillo,

April 3, 1939

Rafael Trujillo Memo. Published in Vega 1986, 145.

(p.126) Appendix G. National Population Census, May 13, 1935

Total Inhabitants

1,479,417

Dominicans

1,406,347

Foreigners: All Races

73,070

Haitians:

Urban Zones

Men:

1,571

Women:

1,436 (3,007 total in Urban Zones)

Rural Zones

Men:

30,748

Women:

18,902 (49,650 total in Rural Zones)

Total: 52,657

source: 1935 Census. Archivo Histórico de Santiago. Translated by Kimberly Eison Simmons.

Appendix H. Jewish Immigration to the Dominican Republic

The sad destiny of thousands and thousands of human beings, stripped of their properties, harassed from their homes, mistreated, tortured, and sent to extermination camps, prompted the President of the United States of America, Franklin D. Roosevelt, to convoke in the year 1938 an International Conference to discuss the immigrant Jews, in the city of Evian, France.

Thirty-two countries sent delegations. The result was depressing; none showed willingness to admit the Jews that were left without a country.

Only the delegation from the Dominican Republic declared that their country was willing to give protection to One Hundred Thousand refugees, victims of the Nazi persecution.

The Dominican Republic let the doors open to save thousands of innocent lives from the holocaust in Europe.

The noble gesture of its government and people constitutes a historic event of the XXth Century.

Meanwhile, at the other side of the Atlantic Ocean efforts were being made to make the promise a significant event, a reality.

After many meetings held in 1939, the American Jewish Joint Agricultural Corporation (AGRO-Joint) takes charge and supplies the initial capital to start the project and so the base for the foundation of the Dominican Republic Settlement Association, Inc. (called La Dorsa) has been formed.

On January of the year 1940 Dr. James N. Rosenberg, President of La DORSA, moves to the Dominican Republic and on January 30, (p.127) 1940 the Dominican Government signs an Agreement, ratified immediately by the National Congress.

The Generalísimo Dr. Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina donated 26,000 acres of his property in Sosúa, in the Northern coast of the country, in the name of the Dominican Republic and as a personal contribution for a humanitarian project.

Source: Sosúa: From Refuge to Paradise (Eichen 1995, 7–8).

Appendix I. Race and Color in Comparison, 1935 and 1950 Census, Combined Dominicans and Foreigners

Color

1935

1950

Blanco (White)

192,733

600,994

Negro (Black)

287,677

245,032

Mestizo (Mixed)

998,668

1,289,285

Amarillo (Asian)

339

561

source: Archivo Histórico de Santiago. Compiled and translated by Kimberly Eison Simmons.

Appendix J. First Language, 1950 Census

First Language

Total

Men

Women

La Repüblica/The Dominican Republic

(Total)

2,135,872

1,070,742

1,065,130

Spanish

2,093,195

1,043,760

1,049,525

Arabic

1,978

1,100

878

French

25,405

16,747

8,658

English

12,140

7,288

4,852

Italian

562

372

190

Other

2,578

1,554

1,024

Unknown

14

11

3

source: Archivo Histórico de Santiago. Compiled and translated by Kimberly Eison Simmons.

(p.128) Appendix K. Religion, 1935 and 1950 National Censuses

Religion

1935

1950

La Repüblica/The Dominican

Republic (Total)

1,479,417

2,135,872

Catholic

1,458,790

2,098,474

Protestant

15,384

30,538

Buddhist

0

56

Jewish

0

463

Adventist

0

2,902

Other

5,243

1,356

None

0

1,845

None Declared

0

238

source: Archivo Histórico de Santiago. Compiled and translated by Kimberly Eison Simmons.

Appendix L. Trujillo Memos

Below is a memo from a collection published by Bernardo Vega, a Dominican scholar and former ambassador to the United States. It articulates Dominicanization along the lines of race, nationality, and language.

Dominican Republic

Secretary of State of the Interior and Police

Cuidad Trujillo, D.S.D.

July 9, 1943

To: Mr. Secretary of State of the Presidency,

Your Office.

Matter: Measures to prevent Kreyol from being spoken in the border region of the Dominican Republic.

Ref.: Number 10304, dated May 7

1.—In relation to your attentive engagement to this matter, I would like to inform you that, in spite of the fact that the Secretary of State has carried out a careful and detailed study about the possibility of preventing the spread of and avoiding the usage of Kreyol in the border region of the Dominican Republic, he found that neither legal nor administrative means is possible at the present time to prevent the use of this dialect.

2.—The desire expressed by his Excellency Mr. President of the Republic to banish the use of a strange language in the border region in absolute to our language, that is recommended for its high patriotic (p.129) sense. We understand, however, that it could be obtained as a result of a didactic and educational effort.

Very sincerely,

M. A. Pena Batille,

Secretary of State of the Interior and Police

M. A. Peña Batille Memo. Published in Vega 1986, 140. Translated by Kimberly Eison Simmons. (p.130)