Much of the story of the ships that launched the United States into World War I was readily available in the archived files of the New York Times and other newspapers. The New York Maritime Register, a business periodical of the period, gave some insights into howthe ship-owning and shipping business community viewed developments. In addition to the published works listed below, the author consulted several archival collections. Most notably, the Woodrow Wilson Papers, collected by Arthur Link from numerous repositories, housed at the Seeley Mudd Library at Princeton, proved extremely useful. Professor Link published only a selection of those papers in the Papers of Woodrow Wilson, and a few of those he chose not to include were of great interest to this study. Furthermore, the papers of Robert Lansing, at the Library of Congress Manuscript Division, were useful, particularly the “desk diaries” that noted specific meetings with members of Congress and with the president over the days of decision. The printed (and Internet-available) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) provided access to many of the consularreports of U.S. ship losses. The Congressional Record provided full coverage of the debate over the Declaration of War. In addition, kind assistance from international scholars in Britain and Holland, who retrieved documents from the British National Archives, from the Portsmouth Nautical Museum, and from the Dutch National Archives, as noted in appendix A, helped flesh out the missing elements regarding the loss of Healdton. See the end notes for specific archival and periodical sources.
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