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Hard Labor and Hard Time
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Hard Labor and Hard Time: Florida's "Sunshine Prison" and Chain Gangs

Vivien M. L. Miller

Abstract

During the first half of the 20th century, Florida prisoners were divided into two categories: Grade 1 prisoners were sent to the chain gangs to build the roads and highways that brought settlers and tourists to the state, and Grade 2 prisoners were sent to the state prison farm near Raiford. The farm began as a temporary stockade in November 1913 but expanded dramatically in the 1920s and 1930s as permanent structures including factories and an execution chamber were established. As there was no separate women's prison before 1952, all female prisoners were also housed at the state prison far ... More

Keywords: chain gangs, southern prison farms, Florida, African American prisoners, women prisoners, race, gender, penal modernism

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2012 Print ISBN-13: 9780813039855
Published to Florida Scholarship Online: January 2013 DOI:10.5744/florida/9780813039855.001.0001

Authors

Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Vivien M. L. Miller, author