Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Slave BreedingSex, Violence, and Memory in African American History$

Gregory D. Smithers

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780813042381

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: May 2013

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813042381.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM FLORIDA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.florida.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University Press of Florida, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in FLASO for personal use (for details see http://www.florida.universitypressscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 26 February 2017

Printed Primary Sources

Printed Primary Sources

Source:
Slave Breeding
Publisher:
University Press of Florida

Bibliography references:

Abridgement of the Minutes of the Evidence Taken Before a Committee of the Evidence Taken before a Committee of the Whole House, to Whom It Was Referred to Consider of the Slave-Trade, 1789. London, 1789.

An Address Delivered by the Rev. Theodore Parker before the New York City Anti-Slavery Society. New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1854.

Address of John Quincy Adams, to His Constituents of the Twelfth Congressional District, at Braintree, September 17th, 1842. Boston: J. H. Eastburn, 1842.

Alexander, William T. History of the Colored Race in America. Kansas City, Mo.: Palmetto, 1887.

American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society. Annual Reports.

American Negro Academy Occasional Papers, Nos. 1–22. New York: Arno Press, 1969.

The Anti-Slavery Record: Volume III for 1837. New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1838.

Appendix to the Souvenir Presented to James M. Ashley on Emancipation Day, September 2, 1893. Philadelphia: Publishing House of the A.M.E. Church, 1894.

Aptheker, Herbert., ed. A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States, 1933–1945. Secaucus, N.J.: The Citadel Press, 1974.

Baldwin, James. The Fire Next Time. 1962. Reprint, New York: Vintage Books, 1991.

Ballagh, James C. A History of Virginia. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1902.

Baxandall, Rosalyn, and Linda Gordon, eds. Dear Sisters: Dispatches from the Women's Liberation Movement. New York: Perseus Books Group, 2000.

Beecher, Henry Ward. Freedom and War, Discourses on Topics Suggested by the Times. Boston: Ticknor & Fields, 1863.

———. Patriotic Addresses in America and England from 1850 to 1885, on Slavery, the Civil War, and the Development of Civil Liberty in the United States. New York: Fords, Howard, & Hulbert, 1891. (p.215)

Betts, Edwin M., ed. Thomas Jefferson's Farm Book. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Bogart, Ernest L. The Economic History of the United States. New York: Longmans, Green, 1907.

Bolding, B. J. “What of the Negro Race”: Bolding vs. Hassarl. Chambersburg, Pa.: The Democratic News, 1906.

Bowers, Claude G. The Tragic Era: The Revolution after Lincoln. Cambridge, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 1929.

Boynton, C. B., and T. B. Mason. Journey through Kansas: With Sketches of Nebraska: Describing the Country, Climate, Soil, Mineral, Manufacturing, and Other Resources. Cincinnati: Moore, Wilstach, Keys, 1855.

Branagan, Thomas. A Preliminary Essay, on the Oppression of the Exiled Sons of Africa: Consisting of Animadversions on the Impolicy and Barbarity of the Deleterious Commerce and Subsequent Slavery of the Human Species. Philadelphia: Printed by the author, 1804.

Brawley, Benjamin Griffith. A Short History of the American Negro. Rev. ed. New York: Macmillan, 1919.

Breeden, James O., ed. Advice to Masters: The Ideal in Slave Management in the Old South. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1980.

Breitman, George, ed. Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements. New York: Grove Press, 1990.

Brewster, Frances E. Slavery and the Constitution: Both Sides of the Question. Philadelphia, 1850.

Brooks, Gwendolyn. “The Mother.” In Black Voices: An Anthology of Afro-American Literature, ed. Abraham Chapman, 61. New York: New American Library, 1968.

Brotz, Howard, ed. African-American Social and Political Thought, 1850–1920. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1992.

Brown, William Wells. The Black Man: His Antecedents, His Genius, and His Achievements. 2nd ed. New York: Thomas Hamilton, 1863.

———. Narrative of William W. Brown, a Fugitive Slave, Written by Himself (1843), in Slave Narratives. New York: Library of America, 2000.

Bruce, Henry Clay. The New Man: Twenty-Nine Years a Slave, Twenty-Nine Years a Free Man. York, Pa.: Anstadt and Sons, 1895.

Bruce, William Cabell. The Negro Problem. Baltimore: John Murphy & Co., 1891.

Buckingham, James S. The Slave States of America. 2 vols. London: Fisher, Son, 1842.

Buehler, Ezra Christian, ed. Increasing the Power of the Federal Government. New York: Noble & Noble, 1940.

Cairnes, J. E. The Slave Power: Its Character, Career and Probable Designs. London: Macmillan, 1863.

Calman, Andrew L. Life and Labours of John Ashworth. Manchester: Tubbs & Brook, 1875. (p.216)

Carson, Clayborne, ed. The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr. 6 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992–2008.

Carson, Josephine. Silent Voices: The Southern Negro Woman Today. New York: Delacorte Press, 1969.

Caughey, John L., ed. Negotiating Cultures and Identities: Life History Issues, Methods, and Readings. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2006.

Channing, William E. A Letter to the Honorable Henry Clay, on the Annexation of Texas to the United States. Boston: James Munroe & Company, 1837.

Cheever, George Barrell. God against Slavery: And the Freedom and Duty of the Pulpit to Rebuke It, as a Sin Against God. New York: Joseph H. Ladd, 1857.

Child, L. Maria, ed. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl: Written by Herself. Boston: Published for the author, 1861.

Clay, Henry. Remarks of Mr. Clay, Kentucky, on Introducing His Proposition to Compromise, on the Slavery Question. Washington, D.C.: Jno. T. Towers, 1850.

Cobb, W. Montague. “The Negro as a Biological Element in the American Population.” Journal of Negro Education 8, no. 3 (1939): 336–48.

———. “The Physical Constitution of the American Negro.” Journal of Negro Education 3, no. 3 (1934): 340–88.

Collected Black Women's Narratives. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Collier-Thomas, Bettye, and V. P. Franklin, eds. Sisters in Struggle: African American Women in the Civil Rights–Black Power Movement. New York: New York University Press, 2001.

Collins, Winfield H. The Domestic Slave Trade of the Southern United States. New York: Broadway, 1904.

Crummell, Alexander. The Race-Problem in America. Washington, D.C.: Judd & Detweiler, 1889.

Dance, Daryl Cumber. Shuckin’ and Jivin’: Folklore from Contemporary Black Americans. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978.

Dandridge, Rita B., ed. Black Women's Blues: A Literary Anthology, 1934–1988. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992.

Davis, Arthur P., J. Saunders Redding, and Joyce Ann Joyce, eds. The New Cavalcade: African American Writing from 1760 to the Present. 2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1992.

Davis, W. W. The Civil War and Reconstruction in Florida. New York: Columbia University, 1913.

The Debate on the Motion for the Abolition of the Slave-Trade, in the House of Commons, on Monday the Second of April, 1792. London: W. Woodfall, 1792.

Delany, Martin Robinson. The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States. 1852; New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1968.

Dewey, Orville. Discourse on Slavery and the Annexation of Texas. New York: Charles E. Frances & Company, 1844. (p.217)

Doesticks, Q. K. Philander, and Price M. Butler. What Became of the Slaves on a Georgia Plantation? Great Auction Sale of Slaves, at Savannah, Georgia, March 2d & 3d, 1859. A Sequel to Mrs. Kemble's Journal (Savannah, Ga., 1863). Housed in the Daniel A. P. Murray Collection, Library of Congress.

Douglass, Frederick. The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One: Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. Ed. John W. Blassingame. 5 vols. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979–92.

———. My Bondage and My Freedom. New York: Miller, Orton, 1857.

Douglass, Mary. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. 1966. Reprint, New York: Routledge, 2003.

Drake, Richard. Revelations of a Slave Smuggler: Being the Autobiography of Capt. Rich’d Drake, an African Trader for Fifty Years-From 1807 to 1857; During Which Period he was Concerned in the Transportation of Half a Million Blacks from African Coasts to America. New York: Andrew & Filmer, 1860.

Du Bois, W. E. B. The Autobiography of W. E. B. DuBois: A Soliloquy on Viewing My Life from the Last Decade of Its First Century. Reprint, New York: International Publishers, 1968.

———. Black Reconstruction in America, 1860–1880. 1935. Reprint, New York: The Free Press, 1992.

———. “The Conservation of Race.” In The American Negro Academy Occasional Papers, No. 2. Washington, D.C.: Published by the Academy, 1897.

———. Darkwater: Voices from Within the Veil. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.

———. The Negro American Family. Atlanta: The Atlanta University Press, 1908.

———. The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study. Elijah Anderson & Isabel Eaton, eds. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.

———. “The Position of the Negro in the American Social Order: Where Do We Go From Here?” Journal of Negro Education 8, no. 3 ( June 1939): 351–70.

———. “Race Relations in the United States.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 140 (November 1928): 6–10.

———. “The Study of the Negro Problem.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 11 ( January 1898): 1–23.

———. The Suppression of the African Slave-Trade to the United States of America, 1638– 1870. New York: Longman, Green, 1896.

Dunning, William Archibald. Essays on the Civil War and Reconstruction and Related Topics. New York: Macmillan, 1898.

Duvall, C. H. The Building of a Race. Boston: Everett Press, 1919.

Edmonds, Randolph. “Review: Return of the Plantation Tradition.” Phylon 10, no. 1 (1949): 90–92.

———. Six Plays for a Negro Theater. Boston: Walter H. Baker, 1934.

Efflong, Philip U. In Search of a Model for African-American Drama: A Study of Selected Plays by Lorraine Hansberry, Amiri Baraka, and Ntozake Shange. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2000. (p.218)

Elliot, Charles. Sinfulness of American Slavery: Proved from Its Evil Sources; Its Injustices; Its Wrongs; Its Contrariety to Many Scriptural Commands, Prohibitions, and Principles, and to the Christian Spirit; and From Its Evil Effects; Together with Observations on Emancipation, and the Duties of American Citizens in Regard to Slavery. 2 vols. Cincinnati: L. Swormstedt & J. H. Power, 1851.

Experience and Personal Narrative of Uncle Tom Jones, Who was Forty Years a Slave. Also the Surprising Adventures of Wild Tom, of the Island Retreat, a Fugitive Negro from South Carolina. Boston: Farwell & Co., 1858.

Extracts from the Evidence Delivered Before a Select Committee of the House of Commons, in the Years 1790 and 1791; on the Part of the Petitioners for the Abolition of the Slave-Trade. London: L. Wayland, 1791.

Fahy, Thomas. “Exotic Fantasies, Shameful Realities: Race in the Modern American Freak Show.” In A Modern Mosiac: Art and Modernism in the United States, ed. Townsend Ludington, 67–92. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Faux, William. Memorable Days in America: Being a Journal of a Tour to the United States, Principally Undertaken to Ascertain, by Positive Evidence, the Condition and Probable Prospects of British Emigrants; Including Accounts of Mr. Birkbeck's Settlement in the Illinois: And Intended to Show Men and Things as they are in America. London: W. Simpkin and R. Marshall, 1823.

Fischer, Hugh Dunn. The Gun and the Gospel: Early Kansas and Chaplain Fischer. 2nd ed. New York: Medical Century Company, 1899.

Fite, Emerson D. History of the United States. 2nd ed. New York: Henry Holt, 1919.

Fitzpatrick, Sir Jeremiah. Suggestions on the Slave Trade: For the Consideration of the Legislature of Great Britain. London: John Stockdale, 1797.

Fleming, William L. Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama. New York: Columbia University Press, 1905.

Foner, Philip S., and Robert J. Branham, eds. Lift Every Voice: African American Oratory, 1787–1900. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1998.

Foster, Thomas. “Norman and Saxon Blood Royal.” The Gentleman's Magazine, January–June 1880, 328–42.

Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality. Vol. 1, An Introduction. London: Viking, 1986.

Frazier, E. Franklin. The Negro Family in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1939.

———. The Negro in the United States. Rev. ed. 1949. New York: Macmillan, 1957.

Garner, J. W. Reconstruction in Mississippi. New York: Macmillan, 1901.

Garnet, Henry Highland. A Memorial Discourse; By Rev. Henry Highland Garnet, Delivered in the Hall of the House of Representatives, Washington City, D.C. On Sabbath, February 12, 1865. With an Introduction, by James McCune Smith, M.D. Philadelphia: Joseph M. Wilson, 1865.

George, James Z. The Political History of Slavery in the United States. New York: Neale Publishing Company, 1915. (p.219)

Giddings, Joshua R. Speeches in Congress. Boston: John P. Jewett, 1858.

Gilbert, Olive, ed. Narrative of Sojourner Truth: A Bondswoman of Olden Time, with a History of Her Labors and Correspondence Drawn from Her “Book of Life.” 1850; New York: Penguin, 1998.

Goodell, William. The American Slave Code in Theory and Practice: Its Distinctive Features Shown by Its Statutes, Judicial Decisions, and Illustrative Facts. New York: American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 1853.

Greeley, Horace. The American Conflict: A History of the Great Rebellion in the United States of America, 1860–’64. 2 vols. Hartford: O. D. Case, 1866.

Green, Jacob D. Narrative of the Life of J. D. Green, a Runaway Slave from Kentucky. Huddersfield: Henry Fielding, 1864.

Green, John P. Recollections of the Inhabitants, Localities, Superstitions, and Ku Klux Outrages of the Carolinas. N.p., 1880.

Hall, Marshall. The Two-Fold Slavery of the United States: With a Project of Self-Emancipation. London: Adam Scott, Charterhouse Square, 1854.

Hamilton, J. G. de Roulhac. Reconstruction in North Carolina. Raleigh, N.C.: Presses of Edwards & Broughton, 1914.

Hammond, James Henry. “Overseers.” Carolina Planter 1 (1844): 25–26.

Hankins, Frank H. The Racial Basis for Civilization: A Critique of the Nordic Doctrine. New York: Knopf, 1926.

Harris, William J., ed. The Leroi Jones/Amiri Baraka Reader. New York: Avalon, 1999.

Hatch, James V., and Ted Shine, eds. Black Theater USA: Plays by African Americans, the Early Period, 1847–1938. New York: Free Press, 1996.

Hazard, W. W. “On the General Management of Negroes.” Southern Agriculturalist 4 (1831): 350–54.

Heglar, Charles J., ed. The Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb: An American Slave. 1850. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2001.

Helper, Hinton Rowan. The Impending Crisis of the South: How to Meet It. New York: A. B. Burdick, 1860.

Henningsen, Charles F. The White Slave: Or, the Russian Peasant Girl. 3 vols. London: Henry Colburn, 1845.

Henry, Caleb S. Plain Reasons for the Great Republican Movement: What We Want; Why We Want It; and What Will Come If We Fail. 2nd ed. New York: Dix, Edwards, 1856.

Herskovits, Melville. The American Negro: A Study of Racial Crossing. 1928. Reprint, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1968.

Hildreth, Andrew. The History of the United States of America. 6 vols. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1880.

Hildreth, Richard. Archy Moore, the White Slave; or, Memoirs of a Fugitive. New York: Miller, Orton & Mulligan, 1856.

Houchins, Sue E., ed. Spiritual Narratives. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Houck, Davis W., and David E. Dixon, eds. Rhetoric, Religion, and the Civil Rights Movement, 1954–1965. Waco, Tex.: Baylor University Press, 2006. (p.220)

Hunter, Frances L. “Slave Society on the Southern Plantation.” Journal of Negro History 7, no. 1 (1922): 1–10.

Hurley, Rev. R. F. The Negro in America: The Influence of His Presence Upon the Material, Social, Moral and Political Development of the Nation, and the Identity of His Interests with the Interests of Other Americans. Columbia, S.C.: Published by the author, 1899.

Hurmence, Belinda, ed. My Folks Don’t Want Me to Talk about Slavery: Twenty-One Oral Histories of Former North Carolina Slaves. Winston-Salem: John F. Blair, 1984.

Jacobs, Harriet A. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl: Written by Herself. 1861. Reprint edited with an introduction by Jean Fagan Yellin. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987.

James, Thomas. Wonderful Eventful Life of Rev. Thomas James, by Himself. Rochester, N.Y.: Post-Express Printing Co., 1887.

Jay, William. Miscellaneous Writings on Slavery. Boston: John P. Jewitt, 1853.

Johnson, Charles. Oxherding Tale: A Novel. New York: Scribner, 1982.

Johnson, Clifton H., ed. God Struck Me Dead: Religious Conversion Experiences and Autobiographies of Ex-Slaves. Philadelphia: Pilgrim Press, 1969.

Johnson, Julia E., ed. The Negro Problem. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1921.

Johnson, Ollie A., III, and Karin L. Stanford, eds. Black Political Organizations in the Post–Civil Rights Era. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2002.

Johnston, James F. W. “Notes on North America.” The London Quarterly Review 2 ( July 1851): 48.

———. Notes on North America: Agricultural, Economical, and Social. 2 vols. Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1851.

Jones, Friday. Days of Bondage: Autobiography of Friday Jones, Being a Brief Narrative of His Trials and Tribulations in Slavery. Washington, D.C.: Commercial Pub. Co., 1883.

Juge, M. A. The American Planter; or the Bound Labor Interest in the United States. New York: Long and Brother, 1854.

Karim, Benjamin, ed. The End of White World Supremacy: Four Speeches. New York: Merlin House, 1971.

Keifer, Joseph W. Slavery and Four Years of War: A Political History of Slavery in the United States. 2 vols. New York: Putnam, 1900.

Kelsey, Carl. “The Evolution of Negro Labor.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 21 ( January 1903): 55–76.

Killion, Ronald, and Charles Waller, eds. Slavery Times When I Was Chillun Down on Marster's Plantation: Interviews with Georgia Slaves. Savannah: Beehive Press, 1973.

King, Martin Luther, Jr. Stride toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story. 1958. Reprinted with introduction by Clayborne Carson. Boston: Beacon Press, 2010.

———. Where Do We Go from Here? Chaos or Community? Boston: Beacon Press, 1968.

———. Why We Can’t Wait. 1963. Reprint, New York: Signet Classics, 2000.

Koch, Frederick. American Folk Plays. New York: D. Appleton, 1939.

———. Carolina Folk-Plays: First, Second, and Third Series. New York: Henry Holt, 1941. (p.221)

Lake, Obiagele. Blue Veins and Kinky Hairs: Naming and Color Consciousness in African America. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2003.

Lankford, George E. Bearing Witness: Memories of Arkansas Slavery from the 1930s WPA Collections. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2006.

Lee, Guy C., and Francis N. Thorpe, eds. The Civil War: The National View. Philadelphia: G. Barrie & Sons, 1906.

Long, John Dixon. Pictures of Slavery in Church and State: Personal Reminiscences, Biographical Sketches, Etc., Etc. Philadelphia: Published by the author, 1857.

Lowell, James R. The Writings of James Russell Lowell: Political Essays. 5 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1900.

MacLeod, William Christie. “Economic Aspects of Indigenous American Slavery.” American Anthropologist 30, no. 4 (1928): 632–50.

Mallard, Robert Quarterman. Plantation Life before Emancipation. Richmond: Whittet & Shepperson, 1892.

Mann, Horace. Slavery: Letters and Speeches. Boston: B. B. Mussey & Co., 1851.

Marjoribanks, Alexander. Travels in South and North America. 5th ed. London: Simpkin, Marshall, 1854.

Mars, James. The Life of James Mars, a Slave Born and Sold in Connecticut. Written by Himself. Hartford: Lockwood and Company, 1868.

Marx, Karl. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. 2 vols. New York: Modern Library of America, 1906.

Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. The Communist Manifesto. 1848. Reprint edited by Eric Hobsbawm, London: Verso, 1998.

M’Carter, J. Mayland. Border Methodism and Border Slavery: Being a Statement and a Review of the Philadelphia Annual Conference Concerning Slavery. Philadelphia: Collins, 1858.

McElrath, Joseph R., Robert C. Leitz III, and Jesse S. Crisler, eds. Charles W. Chesnutt: Essays and Speeches. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999.

McKaye, James. The Mastership and Its Fruits: The Emancipated Slave Face to Face with His Old Master. A Supplement Report to Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War. New York: Loyal Publications Society, 1864.

Memoir of Old Elizabeth, a Coloured Woman. Philadelphia: Collins, 1863.

Mencken, H. L. “Designations for Colored Folk.” American Speech, 19, no. 3 (1944): 161–74.

Miller, Kelly. “Eugenics and the Negro.” Scientific Monthly, July 1917, 57–59.

———. Race Adjustment: Essays on the Negro in America. Washington, D.C.: Neale, 1908.

———. “A Review of Hoffman's Race Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro.” American Negro Academy Occasional Papers, No. 1 (1969): 3–36.

Mintz, Steven, ed. African American Voices: A Documentary Reader, 1619–1877. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

Mitchell, Margaret. Gone with the Wind. New York: Macmillan, 1936. (p.222)

Moore, M. V. “Some Recollections of Slavery: By a Former Slaveholder.” New England Magazine 10, no. 1 (1891): 23–28.

Morrison, Toni. Beloved: A Novel. New York: Plume, 1987.

Moynihan, Daniel Patrick. The Negro Family: A Case for National Action. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1965.

Munro, Alexander. Elements of the Anatomy of the Human Body in Its Sound State; with Occasional Remarks on Physiology, Pathology, and Surgery. 2 vols. Edinburgh: Maclachlan & Stewart, 1825.

Myrdal, Gunnar. An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. 2 vols. 1944. Reprint, New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 2009.

A Narrative of the Adventures and Escape of Moses Roper, From American Slavery. Philadelphia: Merrihew and Gun, 1838.

Narrative of the Life of Moses Grandy, Formerly a Slave in the United States of America. Boston: Oliver Johnson, 1844.

A Narrative of Some Remarkable Incidents in the Life of Solomon Bayley, Formerly a Slave, in the State of Delaware, North America; Written by Himself, and Published for His Benefit; to Which are Prefixed, a Few Remarks by Robert Hurnard. 2nd ed. London: Printed for Harvey & Darton, Gracechurch St., 1825.

The Negro Family: The Case for National Action. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965.

Nelson, Jill. Straight, No Chaser: How I Became a Grown-Up Black Woman. New York: Penguin Books, 1997.

Olmstead, Frederick Law. The Cotton Kingdom: A Traveller's Observations on Cotton and Slavery in the American Slave States. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. New York: Mason Brothers, 1862.

———. A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States in the Years 1853–1854, with Remarks on Their Economy. 2 vols. New York: Putnam, 1856.

———. A Journey to the Back Country. New York: Mason Brothers, 1861.

Onstott, Kyle. Mandingo. Richmond: Denlinger, 1957.

Perdue, Charles L., Jr., Thomas E. Barden, and Robert K. Philips, eds. Weevils in the Wheat: Interviews with Virginia Ex-Slaves. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980.

Perkins, Kathy A., and Judith L. Stephens, eds. Strange Fruit: Plays on Lynching by American Women. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.

Perkins-Valdez, Dolen. Wench: A Novel. New York: Harper Collins, 2010.

Perry, Jeffrey B., ed. A Hubert Harrison Reader. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2001.

Peterson, Bernard L., Jr. Early American Playwrights and Dramatic Writers: A Biographical Directory and Catalog of Plays, Films, and Broadcasting Scripts. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1990.

Phelps, Austin. My Study: And Other Essays. New York: Scribner, 1886.

Phillips, Ulrich Bonnell. American Negro Slavery: A Survey of the Supply, Employment (p.223) and Control of Negro Labor as Determined by the Plantation Regimes. New York: D. Appleton, 1918.

Phillips, Wendell. Speeches, Lectures, and Letters. Boston: Lee & Shephard, 1872.

———. Speeches, Lectures, and Letters. Ed. Rev. Theodore C. Peasr. Cambridge, Mass.: John Wilson & Sons, 1891.

Pierce, Edward L., ed. Memoir and Letters of Charles Sumner. 4 vols. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1893.

Pike, James Shepherd. First Blows of the Civil War: The Ten Years of Preliminary Conflict in the United States. From 1850 to 1860. New York: American News Co., 1879.

Pillsbury, Parker. Acts of the Anti-Slavery Apostles. Concord, N.H.: Clague, Wegman, Schlicht, 1883.

Pollard, Edward A. The Lost Cause: A New Southern History of the War of the Confederates. New York: E. B. Treat, 1866.

———. The Lost Cause: A New Southern History of the War of the Confederates. 2nd ed. New York: E. B. Treat, 1890.

———. The Lost Cause Regained. New York: G. W. Carleton & Co., 1868.

Porter, Dorothy B., ed. Early Negro Writing, 1760–1837. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971.

Price, Thomas. Slavery in America: With Notices of the Present State of Slavery and the Slave Trade throughout the World. London: G. Wightman, 1837.

Proceedings of the New-England Anti-Slavery Convention, Held in Boston on the 27th, 28th and 29th of May, 1834. Boston: Printed by Garrison & Knapp, 1834.

The Proslavery Argument; as Maintained by the Most Distinguished Writers of the Southern States, Containing the Several Essays, on the Subject of Chancellor Harper, Governor Hammond, Dr. Simms, and Professor Dew. Charleston: Walker, Richards & Co., 1852.

Purvis, Robert. Appeal to Forty Thousand Citizens, Threatened with Disfranchisement, to the People of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Merrihew and Gunn, 1838.

Ranby, John. Doubts on the Abolition of the Slave Trade, by an Old Member of Parliament. London: John Stockdale, 1790.

Rawick, George P., ed. The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography. 19 vols. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1972.

———, ed. The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography, Supplemental Series 1. 12 vols. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1977.

———, ed. The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography, Supplemental Series 2. 10 vols. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1979.

Reddick, L. D. “A New Interpretation for Negro History.” Journal of Negro History 22, no. 1 (1937), 17–28.

Reinhart, James M. “The Negro: Is He a Biological Inferior?” American Journal of Sociology 33, no. 2 (1927): 248–61.

Renny, Robert. An History of Jamaica. London: J. Cawthorn, 1807.

Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for the Year 1865. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1866. (p.224)

Reuter, Edward B. The Mulatto in the United States: Including a Study of the Mixed-Blood Races Throughout the World. 1918. Reprint, New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969.

———. “Why the Presence of the Negro Constitutes a Problem in the American Social Order.” Journal of Negro Education 8, no. 3 (1939): 291–98.

Revelations of a Slave Smuggler: Being the Autobiography of Capt. Richard Drake, an African Trader for Fifty Years—From 1807 to 1857; During Which Period He was Concerned in the Transportation of Half a Million Blacks from African Coasts to America, with a Preface by His Executor, rev. Henry Byrd West, of the protestant Home Mission. New York: Robert M. Dewitt, 1860.

Reynolds, J. S. Reconstruction in South Carolina, 1865–1877. Columbia, S.C.: State Co., 1905.

Rhodes, James Ford. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850. 4 vols. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1892–1919.

Ripley, C. Peter, ed. The Black Abolitionist Papers. 5 vols. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985–92.

Robinson, Bernard F. “War and Race Conflicts in the United States.” Phylon 2, no. 4 (1943): 311–18, 321–27.

Roman, Charles Victor. American Civilization and the Negro: The Afro-American in Relation to National Progress. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1916.

Royster, Jacqueline Jones, ed. Southern Horrors and Other Writings: The Anti-Lynching Campaign of Ida B. Wells, 1892–1900. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997.

Rubens, Julius. “Liberty.” New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1839.

Sanders, Leslie C. The Development of Black Theater in America: From Shadows to Slaves. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1998.

Schuricht, Herrmann. History of the German Element in Virginia. 2 vols. Baltimore: Theo. Kroh, 1898–1900.

Seale, Bobby. Seize the Time: The Story of the Black Panther Party and Huey P. Newton. 1970. Reprint, Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1991.

Seaman, Ezra Champion. Essays on the Progress of Nations, in Productive Industry, Civilization, Population, and Wealth; Illustrated by Statistics of Mining, Agriculture, Manufactures, Commerce, Banking, Revenues, Internal Improvements, Emigration, Mortality, and Population. New York: Baker & Scribner, 1846.

Shannon, Alexander Harvey. Racial Integrity and Other Features of the Negro Problem. Nashville: M. E. Church, South, 1907.

Siebert, Wilbur H. The Underground Railroad: From Slavery to Freedom. New York: Macmillan, 1898.

Simons, A. M. “Economic Aspects of Chattel Slavery.” International Socialist Review 4 ( July 1903–June 1904): 257–75.

Six Women's Slave Narratives. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Slavery Illustrated in Its Effects upon Woman and Domestic Society. Boston: Isaac Knapp, 1837. (p.225)

Smith, Gerrit. The True Office of Civil Government: A Speech in the City of Troy. New York: S. W. Benedict, 1851.

South Carolina. House of Representatives. Special Committee on Slavery and the Slave Trade. Columbia, S.C., 1867.

Sprague, Stuart Seely, ed. His Promised Land: The Autobiography of John P. Parker, Former Slave and Conductor on the Underground Railroad. New York: Norton, 1996.

Staples, Thomas. Reconstruction in Arkansas, 1862–1874. New York: Columbia University, 1923.

St. Clair, Thomas Staunton. A Soldier's Recollections of the West Indies and America, with a Narrative of the Expedition to the Island of Walcheren, 2 vols. London: Richard Bentley, 1834.

Stephens, Judith L. The Plays of Georgia Douglas Johnson: From the New Negro Renaissance to the Civil Rights Movement. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2006.

Steward, Austin. Twenty-Two Years a Slave, and Forty Years a Freeman; Embracing a Correspondence of Several Years, While President of Wilberforce Colony, London, Canada West. Rochester, N.Y.: William Alling, 1857.

Still, William. An Address on the Voting and Laboring, Delivered at Concert Hall, Tuesday Evening, March 10, 1874. Philadelphia: Jas. B. Rogers, 1874.

———. The Underground Rail Road: A Record of Facts, Authentic Narratives, &c., Narrating the Hardships, Hair-breadth Escapes and Death Struggles of the Slaves in their Efforts for Freedom, as Related by Themselves and Others, or Witnessed by the Author; Together with Sketches of Some of the Largest Stockholders, and Most Liberal Aiders, of the Road. Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1872.

Stirling, James. Letters from the Slave States. London: John W. Parker & Son, 1857.

Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Uncle Tom's Cabin: Or, Life among the Lowly. Boston: John P. Jewett, 1852.

Strickland, S. Negro Slavery Described by a Negro: Being the Narrative of Ashton Warner a Native of St. Vincent's. London: Samuel Maunder, 1831.

Thomas, William Hannibal. The American Negro: What He Was, What He Is, and What He May Become: A Critical and Practical Discussion. New York: Macmillan, 1901.

Thompson, C. Mildred. Reconstruction in Georgia. New York: Columbia University Press, 1915.

Tourgee, Albion W. Hot Plowshares: A Novel. New York: Fords, Howard, & Hulbert, 1883.

Tuckerman, Bayard, and John Jay. William Jay and the Constitutional Movement for the Abolition of Slavery. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1894.

Tyler, Ron, and Lawrence R. Murphy, eds. The Slave Narratives of Texas. Abilene, Tex.: State House Press, McMurry University, 2006.

Von Holst, Hermann. The Constitutional and Political History of the United States: 1750– 1833, State Sovereignty and Slavery. 8 vols. Chicago: Callaghan & Company, 1889.

Walker, Margaret. Jubilee. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966. (p.226)

Washington, Booker T., ed. The Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative American Negroes of To-Day. New York: James Pott & Company, 1903.

Washington, James M., ed. A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. New York: Harper Collins, 1991.

Watson, Henry. Narrative of Henry Watson, a Fugitive Slave. 2nd ed. Boston: Bella Marsh, 1849.

Weld, Theodore Dwight. American Slavery as It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses. New York: Published by the American Anti-Slavery Society, 1839.

———. Slavery and the International Slave Trade in the United States of North America. London: T. Ward & Co., 1841.

Wells, Ida B. A Red Record: Lynchings in the United States, 1892-1893-1894. Chicago, 1997.

Weston, George M. The Progress of Slavery in the United States. Washington, D.C.: Published by the author, 1857.

Whipple, Wayne. The Story-Life of Lincoln: A Biography Composed of Five Hundred True Stories Told by Abraham Lincoln and His Friends. Philadelphia: John C. Winston, 1908.

Whiteley, Henry. Excessive Cruelty to Slaves: Three Months in Jamaica, in 1832: Comprising a Residence of Seven Weeks on a Sugar Plantation. London, 1833. Held in the Library Company of Philadelphia.

Wickliffe, John C. “Negro Suffrage a Failure: Shall We Abolish It?” The Forum 17 (1892): 797–804.

Wilberforce, William. A Letter on the Abolition of the Slave Trade: Addressed to Freeholders and other Inhabitants of Yorkshire. London: Luke Hansard & Sons, 1807.

Williams, Robert F. Negroes with Guns. 1962. Reprint, Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1998.

Wilson, Henry. History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America. 3 vols. Boston: James R. Osgood & Company, 1872–77.

———. No Rights, No Duties: Or, Slaveholders, As Such, Have no Rights; Slaves, as Such, Owe no Duties. Boston: Printed for the author, 1860.

Winston, Robert W. “An Unconsidered Aspect of the Negro Question.” South Atlantic Quarterly 1, no. 3 (1902): 265–68.

Woodson, Carter G. “The Beginnings of the Miscegenation of the Whites and Blacks.” Journal of Negro History 3, no. 4 (1918): 335–53.

———. The Mis-Education of the Negro. Washington, D.C.: Associated Publishers, 1933.

———. The Negro in Our History. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: Associated Publishers, 1922.

Woodson, Carter G., and Charles H. Wesley. The Story of the Negro Retold. Washington, D.C.: Associated Publishers, 1935.

Works Project Administration. Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United States from Interviews with Former Slaves. 1941. Reprint, Charleston, S.C.: Bibliolife, 2006. (p.227)

Worley, Demetrice A., and Jesse Perry Jr., eds. African-American Literature: An Anthology. 2nd ed. Lincolnwood, Ill.: NTC Publishing Group, 1998.

X, Malcolm. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. With Alex Haley. 1964. Reprint, New York: Ballantine, 1999.

Yerby, Frank. The Foxes of Harrow. New York: Dial Press, 1947.