Printed Primary Sources
Printed Primary Sources
Abridgement of the Minutes of the Evidence Taken Before a Committee of the Evidence Taken before a Committee of the Whole House, to Whom It Was Referred to Consider of the Slave-Trade, 1789. London, 1789.
An Address Delivered by the Rev. Theodore Parker before the New York City Anti-Slavery Society. New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1854.
Address of John Quincy Adams, to His Constituents of the Twelfth Congressional District, at Braintree, September 17th, 1842. Boston: J. H. Eastburn, 1842.
Alexander, William T. History of the Colored Race in America. Kansas City, Mo.: Palmetto, 1887.
American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society. Annual Reports.
American Negro Academy Occasional Papers, Nos. 1–22. New York: Arno Press, 1969.
The Anti-Slavery Record: Volume III for 1837. New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1838.
Appendix to the Souvenir Presented to James M. Ashley on Emancipation Day, September 2, 1893. Philadelphia: Publishing House of the A.M.E. Church, 1894.
Aptheker, Herbert., ed. A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States, 1933–1945. Secaucus, N.J.: The Citadel Press, 1974.
Baldwin, James. The Fire Next Time. 1962. Reprint, New York: Vintage Books, 1991.
Ballagh, James C. A History of Virginia. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1902.
Baxandall, Rosalyn, and Linda Gordon, eds. Dear Sisters: Dispatches from the Women's Liberation Movement. New York: Perseus Books Group, 2000.
Beecher, Henry Ward. Freedom and War, Discourses on Topics Suggested by the Times. Boston: Ticknor & Fields, 1863.
———. Patriotic Addresses in America and England from 1850 to 1885, on Slavery, the Civil War, and the Development of Civil Liberty in the United States. New York: Fords, Howard, & Hulbert, 1891. (p.215)
Betts, Edwin M., ed. Thomas Jefferson's Farm Book. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.
Bogart, Ernest L. The Economic History of the United States. New York: Longmans, Green, 1907.
Bolding, B. J. “What of the Negro Race”: Bolding vs. Hassarl. Chambersburg, Pa.: The Democratic News, 1906.
Bowers, Claude G. The Tragic Era: The Revolution after Lincoln. Cambridge, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 1929.
Boynton, C. B., and T. B. Mason. Journey through Kansas: With Sketches of Nebraska: Describing the Country, Climate, Soil, Mineral, Manufacturing, and Other Resources. Cincinnati: Moore, Wilstach, Keys, 1855.
Branagan, Thomas. A Preliminary Essay, on the Oppression of the Exiled Sons of Africa: Consisting of Animadversions on the Impolicy and Barbarity of the Deleterious Commerce and Subsequent Slavery of the Human Species. Philadelphia: Printed by the author, 1804.
Brawley, Benjamin Griffith. A Short History of the American Negro. Rev. ed. New York: Macmillan, 1919.
Breeden, James O., ed. Advice to Masters: The Ideal in Slave Management in the Old South. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1980.
Breitman, George, ed. Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements. New York: Grove Press, 1990.
Brewster, Frances E. Slavery and the Constitution: Both Sides of the Question. Philadelphia, 1850.
Brooks, Gwendolyn. “The Mother.” In Black Voices: An Anthology of Afro-American Literature, ed. Abraham Chapman, 61. New York: New American Library, 1968.
Brotz, Howard, ed. African-American Social and Political Thought, 1850–1920. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1992.
Brown, William Wells. The Black Man: His Antecedents, His Genius, and His Achievements. 2nd ed. New York: Thomas Hamilton, 1863.
———. Narrative of William W. Brown, a Fugitive Slave, Written by Himself (1843), in Slave Narratives. New York: Library of America, 2000.
Bruce, Henry Clay. The New Man: Twenty-Nine Years a Slave, Twenty-Nine Years a Free Man. York, Pa.: Anstadt and Sons, 1895.
Bruce, William Cabell. The Negro Problem. Baltimore: John Murphy & Co., 1891.
Buckingham, James S. The Slave States of America. 2 vols. London: Fisher, Son, 1842.
Buehler, Ezra Christian, ed. Increasing the Power of the Federal Government. New York: Noble & Noble, 1940.
Cairnes, J. E. The Slave Power: Its Character, Career and Probable Designs. London: Macmillan, 1863.
Calman, Andrew L. Life and Labours of John Ashworth. Manchester: Tubbs & Brook, 1875. (p.216)
Carson, Clayborne, ed. The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr. 6 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992–2008.
Carson, Josephine. Silent Voices: The Southern Negro Woman Today. New York: Delacorte Press, 1969.
Caughey, John L., ed. Negotiating Cultures and Identities: Life History Issues, Methods, and Readings. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2006.
Channing, William E. A Letter to the Honorable Henry Clay, on the Annexation of Texas to the United States. Boston: James Munroe & Company, 1837.
Cheever, George Barrell. God against Slavery: And the Freedom and Duty of the Pulpit to Rebuke It, as a Sin Against God. New York: Joseph H. Ladd, 1857.
Child, L. Maria, ed. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl: Written by Herself. Boston: Published for the author, 1861.
Clay, Henry. Remarks of Mr. Clay, Kentucky, on Introducing His Proposition to Compromise, on the Slavery Question. Washington, D.C.: Jno. T. Towers, 1850.
Cobb, W. Montague. “The Negro as a Biological Element in the American Population.” Journal of Negro Education 8, no. 3 (1939): 336–48.
———. “The Physical Constitution of the American Negro.” Journal of Negro Education 3, no. 3 (1934): 340–88.
Collected Black Women's Narratives. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Collier-Thomas, Bettye, and V. P. Franklin, eds. Sisters in Struggle: African American Women in the Civil Rights–Black Power Movement. New York: New York University Press, 2001.
Collins, Winfield H. The Domestic Slave Trade of the Southern United States. New York: Broadway, 1904.
Crummell, Alexander. The Race-Problem in America. Washington, D.C.: Judd & Detweiler, 1889.
Dance, Daryl Cumber. Shuckin’ and Jivin’: Folklore from Contemporary Black Americans. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978.
Dandridge, Rita B., ed. Black Women's Blues: A Literary Anthology, 1934–1988. New York: G. K. Hall, 1992.
Davis, Arthur P., J. Saunders Redding, and Joyce Ann Joyce, eds. The New Cavalcade: African American Writing from 1760 to the Present. 2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1992.
Davis, W. W. The Civil War and Reconstruction in Florida. New York: Columbia University, 1913.
The Debate on the Motion for the Abolition of the Slave-Trade, in the House of Commons, on Monday the Second of April, 1792. London: W. Woodfall, 1792.
Delany, Martin Robinson. The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States. 1852; New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1968.
Dewey, Orville. Discourse on Slavery and the Annexation of Texas. New York: Charles E. Frances & Company, 1844. (p.217)
Doesticks, Q. K. Philander, and Price M. Butler. What Became of the Slaves on a Georgia Plantation? Great Auction Sale of Slaves, at Savannah, Georgia, March 2d & 3d, 1859. A Sequel to Mrs. Kemble's Journal (Savannah, Ga., 1863). Housed in the Daniel A. P. Murray Collection, Library of Congress.
Douglass, Frederick. The Frederick Douglass Papers: Series One: Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. Ed. John W. Blassingame. 5 vols. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979–92.
———. My Bondage and My Freedom. New York: Miller, Orton, 1857.
Douglass, Mary. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. 1966. Reprint, New York: Routledge, 2003.
Drake, Richard. Revelations of a Slave Smuggler: Being the Autobiography of Capt. Rich’d Drake, an African Trader for Fifty Years-From 1807 to 1857; During Which Period he was Concerned in the Transportation of Half a Million Blacks from African Coasts to America. New York: Andrew & Filmer, 1860.
Du Bois, W. E. B. The Autobiography of W. E. B. DuBois: A Soliloquy on Viewing My Life from the Last Decade of Its First Century. Reprint, New York: International Publishers, 1968.
———. Black Reconstruction in America, 1860–1880. 1935. Reprint, New York: The Free Press, 1992.
———. “The Conservation of Race.” In The American Negro Academy Occasional Papers, No. 2. Washington, D.C.: Published by the Academy, 1897.
———. Darkwater: Voices from Within the Veil. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
———. The Negro American Family. Atlanta: The Atlanta University Press, 1908.
———. The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study. Elijah Anderson & Isabel Eaton, eds. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.
———. “The Position of the Negro in the American Social Order: Where Do We Go From Here?” Journal of Negro Education 8, no. 3 ( June 1939): 351–70.
———. “Race Relations in the United States.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 140 (November 1928): 6–10.
———. “The Study of the Negro Problem.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 11 ( January 1898): 1–23.
———. The Suppression of the African Slave-Trade to the United States of America, 1638– 1870. New York: Longman, Green, 1896.
Dunning, William Archibald. Essays on the Civil War and Reconstruction and Related Topics. New York: Macmillan, 1898.
Duvall, C. H. The Building of a Race. Boston: Everett Press, 1919.
Edmonds, Randolph. “Review: Return of the Plantation Tradition.” Phylon 10, no. 1 (1949): 90–92.
———. Six Plays for a Negro Theater. Boston: Walter H. Baker, 1934.
Efflong, Philip U. In Search of a Model for African-American Drama: A Study of Selected Plays by Lorraine Hansberry, Amiri Baraka, and Ntozake Shange. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2000. (p.218)
Elliot, Charles. Sinfulness of American Slavery: Proved from Its Evil Sources; Its Injustices; Its Wrongs; Its Contrariety to Many Scriptural Commands, Prohibitions, and Principles, and to the Christian Spirit; and From Its Evil Effects; Together with Observations on Emancipation, and the Duties of American Citizens in Regard to Slavery. 2 vols. Cincinnati: L. Swormstedt & J. H. Power, 1851.
Experience and Personal Narrative of Uncle Tom Jones, Who was Forty Years a Slave. Also the Surprising Adventures of Wild Tom, of the Island Retreat, a Fugitive Negro from South Carolina. Boston: Farwell & Co., 1858.
Extracts from the Evidence Delivered Before a Select Committee of the House of Commons, in the Years 1790 and 1791; on the Part of the Petitioners for the Abolition of the Slave-Trade. London: L. Wayland, 1791.
Fahy, Thomas. “Exotic Fantasies, Shameful Realities: Race in the Modern American Freak Show.” In A Modern Mosiac: Art and Modernism in the United States, ed. Townsend Ludington, 67–92. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.
Faux, William. Memorable Days in America: Being a Journal of a Tour to the United States, Principally Undertaken to Ascertain, by Positive Evidence, the Condition and Probable Prospects of British Emigrants; Including Accounts of Mr. Birkbeck's Settlement in the Illinois: And Intended to Show Men and Things as they are in America. London: W. Simpkin and R. Marshall, 1823.
Fischer, Hugh Dunn. The Gun and the Gospel: Early Kansas and Chaplain Fischer. 2nd ed. New York: Medical Century Company, 1899.
Fite, Emerson D. History of the United States. 2nd ed. New York: Henry Holt, 1919.
Fitzpatrick, Sir Jeremiah. Suggestions on the Slave Trade: For the Consideration of the Legislature of Great Britain. London: John Stockdale, 1797.
Fleming, William L. Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama. New York: Columbia University Press, 1905.
Foner, Philip S., and Robert J. Branham, eds. Lift Every Voice: African American Oratory, 1787–1900. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1998.
Foster, Thomas. “Norman and Saxon Blood Royal.” The Gentleman's Magazine, January–June 1880, 328–42.
Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality. Vol. 1, An Introduction. London: Viking, 1986.
Frazier, E. Franklin. The Negro Family in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1939.
———. The Negro in the United States. Rev. ed. 1949. New York: Macmillan, 1957.
Garner, J. W. Reconstruction in Mississippi. New York: Macmillan, 1901.
Garnet, Henry Highland. A Memorial Discourse; By Rev. Henry Highland Garnet, Delivered in the Hall of the House of Representatives, Washington City, D.C. On Sabbath, February 12, 1865. With an Introduction, by James McCune Smith, M.D. Philadelphia: Joseph M. Wilson, 1865.
George, James Z. The Political History of Slavery in the United States. New York: Neale Publishing Company, 1915. (p.219)
Giddings, Joshua R. Speeches in Congress. Boston: John P. Jewett, 1858.
Gilbert, Olive, ed. Narrative of Sojourner Truth: A Bondswoman of Olden Time, with a History of Her Labors and Correspondence Drawn from Her “Book of Life.” 1850; New York: Penguin, 1998.
Goodell, William. The American Slave Code in Theory and Practice: Its Distinctive Features Shown by Its Statutes, Judicial Decisions, and Illustrative Facts. New York: American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 1853.
Greeley, Horace. The American Conflict: A History of the Great Rebellion in the United States of America, 1860–’64. 2 vols. Hartford: O. D. Case, 1866.
Green, Jacob D. Narrative of the Life of J. D. Green, a Runaway Slave from Kentucky. Huddersfield: Henry Fielding, 1864.
Green, John P. Recollections of the Inhabitants, Localities, Superstitions, and Ku Klux Outrages of the Carolinas. N.p., 1880.
Hall, Marshall. The Two-Fold Slavery of the United States: With a Project of Self-Emancipation. London: Adam Scott, Charterhouse Square, 1854.
Hamilton, J. G. de Roulhac. Reconstruction in North Carolina. Raleigh, N.C.: Presses of Edwards & Broughton, 1914.
Hammond, James Henry. “Overseers.” Carolina Planter 1 (1844): 25–26.
Hankins, Frank H. The Racial Basis for Civilization: A Critique of the Nordic Doctrine. New York: Knopf, 1926.
Harris, William J., ed. The Leroi Jones/Amiri Baraka Reader. New York: Avalon, 1999.
Hatch, James V., and Ted Shine, eds. Black Theater USA: Plays by African Americans, the Early Period, 1847–1938. New York: Free Press, 1996.
Hazard, W. W. “On the General Management of Negroes.” Southern Agriculturalist 4 (1831): 350–54.
Heglar, Charles J., ed. The Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb: An American Slave. 1850. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2001.
Helper, Hinton Rowan. The Impending Crisis of the South: How to Meet It. New York: A. B. Burdick, 1860.
Henningsen, Charles F. The White Slave: Or, the Russian Peasant Girl. 3 vols. London: Henry Colburn, 1845.
Henry, Caleb S. Plain Reasons for the Great Republican Movement: What We Want; Why We Want It; and What Will Come If We Fail. 2nd ed. New York: Dix, Edwards, 1856.
Herskovits, Melville. The American Negro: A Study of Racial Crossing. 1928. Reprint, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1968.
Hildreth, Andrew. The History of the United States of America. 6 vols. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1880.
Hildreth, Richard. Archy Moore, the White Slave; or, Memoirs of a Fugitive. New York: Miller, Orton & Mulligan, 1856.
Houchins, Sue E., ed. Spiritual Narratives. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Houck, Davis W., and David E. Dixon, eds. Rhetoric, Religion, and the Civil Rights Movement, 1954–1965. Waco, Tex.: Baylor University Press, 2006. (p.220)
Hunter, Frances L. “Slave Society on the Southern Plantation.” Journal of Negro History 7, no. 1 (1922): 1–10.
Hurley, Rev. R. F. The Negro in America: The Influence of His Presence Upon the Material, Social, Moral and Political Development of the Nation, and the Identity of His Interests with the Interests of Other Americans. Columbia, S.C.: Published by the author, 1899.
Hurmence, Belinda, ed. My Folks Don’t Want Me to Talk about Slavery: Twenty-One Oral Histories of Former North Carolina Slaves. Winston-Salem: John F. Blair, 1984.
Jacobs, Harriet A. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl: Written by Herself. 1861. Reprint edited with an introduction by Jean Fagan Yellin. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987.
James, Thomas. Wonderful Eventful Life of Rev. Thomas James, by Himself. Rochester, N.Y.: Post-Express Printing Co., 1887.
Jay, William. Miscellaneous Writings on Slavery. Boston: John P. Jewitt, 1853.
Johnson, Charles. Oxherding Tale: A Novel. New York: Scribner, 1982.
Johnson, Clifton H., ed. God Struck Me Dead: Religious Conversion Experiences and Autobiographies of Ex-Slaves. Philadelphia: Pilgrim Press, 1969.
Johnson, Julia E., ed. The Negro Problem. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1921.
Johnson, Ollie A., III, and Karin L. Stanford, eds. Black Political Organizations in the Post–Civil Rights Era. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2002.
Johnston, James F. W. “Notes on North America.” The London Quarterly Review 2 ( July 1851): 48.
———. Notes on North America: Agricultural, Economical, and Social. 2 vols. Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1851.
Jones, Friday. Days of Bondage: Autobiography of Friday Jones, Being a Brief Narrative of His Trials and Tribulations in Slavery. Washington, D.C.: Commercial Pub. Co., 1883.
Juge, M. A. The American Planter; or the Bound Labor Interest in the United States. New York: Long and Brother, 1854.
Karim, Benjamin, ed. The End of White World Supremacy: Four Speeches. New York: Merlin House, 1971.
Keifer, Joseph W. Slavery and Four Years of War: A Political History of Slavery in the United States. 2 vols. New York: Putnam, 1900.
Kelsey, Carl. “The Evolution of Negro Labor.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 21 ( January 1903): 55–76.
Killion, Ronald, and Charles Waller, eds. Slavery Times When I Was Chillun Down on Marster's Plantation: Interviews with Georgia Slaves. Savannah: Beehive Press, 1973.
King, Martin Luther, Jr. Stride toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story. 1958. Reprinted with introduction by Clayborne Carson. Boston: Beacon Press, 2010.
———. Where Do We Go from Here? Chaos or Community? Boston: Beacon Press, 1968.
———. Why We Can’t Wait. 1963. Reprint, New York: Signet Classics, 2000.
Koch, Frederick. American Folk Plays. New York: D. Appleton, 1939.
———. Carolina Folk-Plays: First, Second, and Third Series. New York: Henry Holt, 1941. (p.221)
Lake, Obiagele. Blue Veins and Kinky Hairs: Naming and Color Consciousness in African America. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2003.
Lankford, George E. Bearing Witness: Memories of Arkansas Slavery from the 1930s WPA Collections. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2006.
Lee, Guy C., and Francis N. Thorpe, eds. The Civil War: The National View. Philadelphia: G. Barrie & Sons, 1906.
Long, John Dixon. Pictures of Slavery in Church and State: Personal Reminiscences, Biographical Sketches, Etc., Etc. Philadelphia: Published by the author, 1857.
Lowell, James R. The Writings of James Russell Lowell: Political Essays. 5 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1900.
MacLeod, William Christie. “Economic Aspects of Indigenous American Slavery.” American Anthropologist 30, no. 4 (1928): 632–50.
Mallard, Robert Quarterman. Plantation Life before Emancipation. Richmond: Whittet & Shepperson, 1892.
Mann, Horace. Slavery: Letters and Speeches. Boston: B. B. Mussey & Co., 1851.
Marjoribanks, Alexander. Travels in South and North America. 5th ed. London: Simpkin, Marshall, 1854.
Mars, James. The Life of James Mars, a Slave Born and Sold in Connecticut. Written by Himself. Hartford: Lockwood and Company, 1868.
Marx, Karl. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. 2 vols. New York: Modern Library of America, 1906.
Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. The Communist Manifesto. 1848. Reprint edited by Eric Hobsbawm, London: Verso, 1998.
M’Carter, J. Mayland. Border Methodism and Border Slavery: Being a Statement and a Review of the Philadelphia Annual Conference Concerning Slavery. Philadelphia: Collins, 1858.
McElrath, Joseph R., Robert C. Leitz III, and Jesse S. Crisler, eds. Charles W. Chesnutt: Essays and Speeches. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999.
McKaye, James. The Mastership and Its Fruits: The Emancipated Slave Face to Face with His Old Master. A Supplement Report to Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War. New York: Loyal Publications Society, 1864.
Memoir of Old Elizabeth, a Coloured Woman. Philadelphia: Collins, 1863.
Mencken, H. L. “Designations for Colored Folk.” American Speech, 19, no. 3 (1944): 161–74.
Miller, Kelly. “Eugenics and the Negro.” Scientific Monthly, July 1917, 57–59.
———. Race Adjustment: Essays on the Negro in America. Washington, D.C.: Neale, 1908.
———. “A Review of Hoffman's Race Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro.” American Negro Academy Occasional Papers, No. 1 (1969): 3–36.
Mintz, Steven, ed. African American Voices: A Documentary Reader, 1619–1877. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.
Mitchell, Margaret. Gone with the Wind. New York: Macmillan, 1936. (p.222)
Moore, M. V. “Some Recollections of Slavery: By a Former Slaveholder.” New England Magazine 10, no. 1 (1891): 23–28.
Morrison, Toni. Beloved: A Novel. New York: Plume, 1987.
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick. The Negro Family: A Case for National Action. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1965.
Munro, Alexander. Elements of the Anatomy of the Human Body in Its Sound State; with Occasional Remarks on Physiology, Pathology, and Surgery. 2 vols. Edinburgh: Maclachlan & Stewart, 1825.
Myrdal, Gunnar. An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. 2 vols. 1944. Reprint, New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 2009.
A Narrative of the Adventures and Escape of Moses Roper, From American Slavery. Philadelphia: Merrihew and Gun, 1838.
Narrative of the Life of Moses Grandy, Formerly a Slave in the United States of America. Boston: Oliver Johnson, 1844.
A Narrative of Some Remarkable Incidents in the Life of Solomon Bayley, Formerly a Slave, in the State of Delaware, North America; Written by Himself, and Published for His Benefit; to Which are Prefixed, a Few Remarks by Robert Hurnard. 2nd ed. London: Printed for Harvey & Darton, Gracechurch St., 1825.
The Negro Family: The Case for National Action. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965.
Nelson, Jill. Straight, No Chaser: How I Became a Grown-Up Black Woman. New York: Penguin Books, 1997.
Olmstead, Frederick Law. The Cotton Kingdom: A Traveller's Observations on Cotton and Slavery in the American Slave States. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. New York: Mason Brothers, 1862.
———. A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States in the Years 1853–1854, with Remarks on Their Economy. 2 vols. New York: Putnam, 1856.
———. A Journey to the Back Country. New York: Mason Brothers, 1861.
Onstott, Kyle. Mandingo. Richmond: Denlinger, 1957.
Perdue, Charles L., Jr., Thomas E. Barden, and Robert K. Philips, eds. Weevils in the Wheat: Interviews with Virginia Ex-Slaves. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980.
Perkins, Kathy A., and Judith L. Stephens, eds. Strange Fruit: Plays on Lynching by American Women. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.
Perkins-Valdez, Dolen. Wench: A Novel. New York: Harper Collins, 2010.
Perry, Jeffrey B., ed. A Hubert Harrison Reader. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2001.
Peterson, Bernard L., Jr. Early American Playwrights and Dramatic Writers: A Biographical Directory and Catalog of Plays, Films, and Broadcasting Scripts. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1990.
Phelps, Austin. My Study: And Other Essays. New York: Scribner, 1886.
Phillips, Ulrich Bonnell. American Negro Slavery: A Survey of the Supply, Employment (p.223) and Control of Negro Labor as Determined by the Plantation Regimes. New York: D. Appleton, 1918.
Phillips, Wendell. Speeches, Lectures, and Letters. Boston: Lee & Shephard, 1872.
———. Speeches, Lectures, and Letters. Ed. Rev. Theodore C. Peasr. Cambridge, Mass.: John Wilson & Sons, 1891.
Pierce, Edward L., ed. Memoir and Letters of Charles Sumner. 4 vols. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1893.
Pike, James Shepherd. First Blows of the Civil War: The Ten Years of Preliminary Conflict in the United States. From 1850 to 1860. New York: American News Co., 1879.
Pillsbury, Parker. Acts of the Anti-Slavery Apostles. Concord, N.H.: Clague, Wegman, Schlicht, 1883.
Pollard, Edward A. The Lost Cause: A New Southern History of the War of the Confederates. New York: E. B. Treat, 1866.
———. The Lost Cause: A New Southern History of the War of the Confederates. 2nd ed. New York: E. B. Treat, 1890.
———. The Lost Cause Regained. New York: G. W. Carleton & Co., 1868.
Porter, Dorothy B., ed. Early Negro Writing, 1760–1837. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971.
Price, Thomas. Slavery in America: With Notices of the Present State of Slavery and the Slave Trade throughout the World. London: G. Wightman, 1837.
Proceedings of the New-England Anti-Slavery Convention, Held in Boston on the 27th, 28th and 29th of May, 1834. Boston: Printed by Garrison & Knapp, 1834.
The Proslavery Argument; as Maintained by the Most Distinguished Writers of the Southern States, Containing the Several Essays, on the Subject of Chancellor Harper, Governor Hammond, Dr. Simms, and Professor Dew. Charleston: Walker, Richards & Co., 1852.
Purvis, Robert. Appeal to Forty Thousand Citizens, Threatened with Disfranchisement, to the People of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Merrihew and Gunn, 1838.
Ranby, John. Doubts on the Abolition of the Slave Trade, by an Old Member of Parliament. London: John Stockdale, 1790.
Rawick, George P., ed. The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography. 19 vols. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1972.
———, ed. The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography, Supplemental Series 1. 12 vols. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1977.
———, ed. The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography, Supplemental Series 2. 10 vols. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1979.
Reddick, L. D. “A New Interpretation for Negro History.” Journal of Negro History 22, no. 1 (1937), 17–28.
Reinhart, James M. “The Negro: Is He a Biological Inferior?” American Journal of Sociology 33, no. 2 (1927): 248–61.
Renny, Robert. An History of Jamaica. London: J. Cawthorn, 1807.
Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for the Year 1865. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1866. (p.224)
Reuter, Edward B. The Mulatto in the United States: Including a Study of the Mixed-Blood Races Throughout the World. 1918. Reprint, New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969.
———. “Why the Presence of the Negro Constitutes a Problem in the American Social Order.” Journal of Negro Education 8, no. 3 (1939): 291–98.
Revelations of a Slave Smuggler: Being the Autobiography of Capt. Richard Drake, an African Trader for Fifty Years—From 1807 to 1857; During Which Period He was Concerned in the Transportation of Half a Million Blacks from African Coasts to America, with a Preface by His Executor, rev. Henry Byrd West, of the protestant Home Mission. New York: Robert M. Dewitt, 1860.
Reynolds, J. S. Reconstruction in South Carolina, 1865–1877. Columbia, S.C.: State Co., 1905.
Rhodes, James Ford. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850. 4 vols. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1892–1919.
Ripley, C. Peter, ed. The Black Abolitionist Papers. 5 vols. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985–92.
Robinson, Bernard F. “War and Race Conflicts in the United States.” Phylon 2, no. 4 (1943): 311–18, 321–27.
Roman, Charles Victor. American Civilization and the Negro: The Afro-American in Relation to National Progress. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1916.
Royster, Jacqueline Jones, ed. Southern Horrors and Other Writings: The Anti-Lynching Campaign of Ida B. Wells, 1892–1900. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997.
Rubens, Julius. “Liberty.” New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1839.
Sanders, Leslie C. The Development of Black Theater in America: From Shadows to Slaves. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1998.
Schuricht, Herrmann. History of the German Element in Virginia. 2 vols. Baltimore: Theo. Kroh, 1898–1900.
Seale, Bobby. Seize the Time: The Story of the Black Panther Party and Huey P. Newton. 1970. Reprint, Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1991.
Seaman, Ezra Champion. Essays on the Progress of Nations, in Productive Industry, Civilization, Population, and Wealth; Illustrated by Statistics of Mining, Agriculture, Manufactures, Commerce, Banking, Revenues, Internal Improvements, Emigration, Mortality, and Population. New York: Baker & Scribner, 1846.
Shannon, Alexander Harvey. Racial Integrity and Other Features of the Negro Problem. Nashville: M. E. Church, South, 1907.
Siebert, Wilbur H. The Underground Railroad: From Slavery to Freedom. New York: Macmillan, 1898.
Simons, A. M. “Economic Aspects of Chattel Slavery.” International Socialist Review 4 ( July 1903–June 1904): 257–75.
Six Women's Slave Narratives. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Slavery Illustrated in Its Effects upon Woman and Domestic Society. Boston: Isaac Knapp, 1837. (p.225)
Smith, Gerrit. The True Office of Civil Government: A Speech in the City of Troy. New York: S. W. Benedict, 1851.
South Carolina. House of Representatives. Special Committee on Slavery and the Slave Trade. Columbia, S.C., 1867.
Sprague, Stuart Seely, ed. His Promised Land: The Autobiography of John P. Parker, Former Slave and Conductor on the Underground Railroad. New York: Norton, 1996.
Staples, Thomas. Reconstruction in Arkansas, 1862–1874. New York: Columbia University, 1923.
St. Clair, Thomas Staunton. A Soldier's Recollections of the West Indies and America, with a Narrative of the Expedition to the Island of Walcheren, 2 vols. London: Richard Bentley, 1834.
Stephens, Judith L. The Plays of Georgia Douglas Johnson: From the New Negro Renaissance to the Civil Rights Movement. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2006.
Steward, Austin. Twenty-Two Years a Slave, and Forty Years a Freeman; Embracing a Correspondence of Several Years, While President of Wilberforce Colony, London, Canada West. Rochester, N.Y.: William Alling, 1857.
Still, William. An Address on the Voting and Laboring, Delivered at Concert Hall, Tuesday Evening, March 10, 1874. Philadelphia: Jas. B. Rogers, 1874.
———. The Underground Rail Road: A Record of Facts, Authentic Narratives, &c., Narrating the Hardships, Hair-breadth Escapes and Death Struggles of the Slaves in their Efforts for Freedom, as Related by Themselves and Others, or Witnessed by the Author; Together with Sketches of Some of the Largest Stockholders, and Most Liberal Aiders, of the Road. Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1872.
Stirling, James. Letters from the Slave States. London: John W. Parker & Son, 1857.
Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Uncle Tom's Cabin: Or, Life among the Lowly. Boston: John P. Jewett, 1852.
Strickland, S. Negro Slavery Described by a Negro: Being the Narrative of Ashton Warner a Native of St. Vincent's. London: Samuel Maunder, 1831.
Thomas, William Hannibal. The American Negro: What He Was, What He Is, and What He May Become: A Critical and Practical Discussion. New York: Macmillan, 1901.
Thompson, C. Mildred. Reconstruction in Georgia. New York: Columbia University Press, 1915.
Tourgee, Albion W. Hot Plowshares: A Novel. New York: Fords, Howard, & Hulbert, 1883.
Tuckerman, Bayard, and John Jay. William Jay and the Constitutional Movement for the Abolition of Slavery. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1894.
Tyler, Ron, and Lawrence R. Murphy, eds. The Slave Narratives of Texas. Abilene, Tex.: State House Press, McMurry University, 2006.
Von Holst, Hermann. The Constitutional and Political History of the United States: 1750– 1833, State Sovereignty and Slavery. 8 vols. Chicago: Callaghan & Company, 1889.
Walker, Margaret. Jubilee. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966. (p.226)
Washington, Booker T., ed. The Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative American Negroes of To-Day. New York: James Pott & Company, 1903.
Washington, James M., ed. A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. New York: Harper Collins, 1991.
Watson, Henry. Narrative of Henry Watson, a Fugitive Slave. 2nd ed. Boston: Bella Marsh, 1849.
Weld, Theodore Dwight. American Slavery as It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses. New York: Published by the American Anti-Slavery Society, 1839.
———. Slavery and the International Slave Trade in the United States of North America. London: T. Ward & Co., 1841.
Wells, Ida B. A Red Record: Lynchings in the United States, 1892-1893-1894. Chicago, 1997.
Weston, George M. The Progress of Slavery in the United States. Washington, D.C.: Published by the author, 1857.
Whipple, Wayne. The Story-Life of Lincoln: A Biography Composed of Five Hundred True Stories Told by Abraham Lincoln and His Friends. Philadelphia: John C. Winston, 1908.
Whiteley, Henry. Excessive Cruelty to Slaves: Three Months in Jamaica, in 1832: Comprising a Residence of Seven Weeks on a Sugar Plantation. London, 1833. Held in the Library Company of Philadelphia.
Wickliffe, John C. “Negro Suffrage a Failure: Shall We Abolish It?” The Forum 17 (1892): 797–804.
Wilberforce, William. A Letter on the Abolition of the Slave Trade: Addressed to Freeholders and other Inhabitants of Yorkshire. London: Luke Hansard & Sons, 1807.
Williams, Robert F. Negroes with Guns. 1962. Reprint, Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1998.
Wilson, Henry. History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America. 3 vols. Boston: James R. Osgood & Company, 1872–77.
———. No Rights, No Duties: Or, Slaveholders, As Such, Have no Rights; Slaves, as Such, Owe no Duties. Boston: Printed for the author, 1860.
Winston, Robert W. “An Unconsidered Aspect of the Negro Question.” South Atlantic Quarterly 1, no. 3 (1902): 265–68.
Woodson, Carter G. “The Beginnings of the Miscegenation of the Whites and Blacks.” Journal of Negro History 3, no. 4 (1918): 335–53.
———. The Mis-Education of the Negro. Washington, D.C.: Associated Publishers, 1933.
———. The Negro in Our History. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: Associated Publishers, 1922.
Woodson, Carter G., and Charles H. Wesley. The Story of the Negro Retold. Washington, D.C.: Associated Publishers, 1935.
Works Project Administration. Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United States from Interviews with Former Slaves. 1941. Reprint, Charleston, S.C.: Bibliolife, 2006. (p.227)
Worley, Demetrice A., and Jesse Perry Jr., eds. African-American Literature: An Anthology. 2nd ed. Lincolnwood, Ill.: NTC Publishing Group, 1998.
X, Malcolm. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. With Alex Haley. 1964. Reprint, New York: Ballantine, 1999.
Yerby, Frank. The Foxes of Harrow. New York: Dial Press, 1947.