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Negotiated SettlementsAndean Communities and Landscapes under Inka and Spanish Colonialism$

Steven A. Wernke

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780813042497

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: May 2013

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813042497.001.0001

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(p.303) Appendix Principal LIP/LH Settlements in the Yanque-Coporaque Survey Area

(p.303) Appendix Principal LIP/LH Settlements in the Yanque-Coporaque Survey Area

Source:
Negotiated Settlements
Publisher:
University Press of Florida

The principal settlements occupied during the Late Intermediate period (LIP) and Late Horizon (LH) in the Yanque-Coporaque survey area are described below. For a complete listing of all sites registered, see Table A.1. Sites from Cabanaconde and Lari are also presented in Table A.1. These were recorded by Doutriaux (2004).

Table A.1. Site coordinates and areas by occupation, Late Intermediate period and Late Horizon

District

Site

UTM-E

UTM-N

Elevation

Area

Occupation

Cabanaconde

CA-002

180555

8270434

3299

Unknown

LIP

Cabanaconde

CA-006

821554

8270147

3113

0.600

LH

Cabanaconde

CA-013

181475

8268852

3542

1.300

LIP

Cabanaconde

CA-013

181475

8268852

3542

0.910

LH

Cabanaconde

CA-018

181858

8269967

3365

9.090

LIP

Cabanaconde

CA-018

181858

8269967

3365

13.650

LH

Cabanaconde

CA-019

182208

8268965

3476

0.900

LIP

Cabanaconde

CA-019

182208

8268965

3476

3.000

LH

Cabanaconde

CA-020

178623

8260385

4402

Unknown

LIP

Cabanaconde

CA-022

821073

8262388

4395

0.002

LH

Cabanaconde

CA-023

820776

8259917

4307

0.700

LIP

Cabanaconde

CA-023

820776

8259917

4307

5.550

LH

Cabanaconde

CA-028

181557

8270897

3348

0.090

LH

Cabanaconde

CA-029

182161

8270659

3443

Unknown

LIP

Cabanaconde

CA-029

182161

8270659

3443

0.075

LH

Cabanaconde

CA-031

179405

8271094

3257

Unknown

LIP

Cabanaconde

CA-032

180160

8270857

3274

6.300

LIP

Cabanaconde

CA-032

180160

8270857

3274

8.370

LH

Cabanaconde

CA-033

179776

8271387

3078

3.270

LIP

Cabanaconde

CA-033

179776

8271387

3078

0.770

LH

Cabanaconde

CA-035

180604

8271508

3227

0.160

LIP

Cabanaconde

CA-035

180604

8271508

3227

0.300

LH

Cabanaconde

CA-037

181551

8272193

3165

7.855

LIP

Cabanaconde

CA-037

181551

8272193

3165

4.331

LH

Cabanaconde

CA-038

182300

8272060

3383

0.000

LIP

Cabanaconde

CA-038

182300

8272060

3383

0.060

LH

Cabanaconde

CA-040

182582

8270178

3518

0.800

LH

Cabanaconde

CA-042

182772

8270431

3545

0.000

LIP

Cabanaconde

CA-042

182772

8270431

3545

0.100

LH

Cabanaconde

CA-044

183346

8271821

3620

0.000

LIP

Cabanaconde

CA-045

182876

8271504

3526

0.000

LIP

Cabanaconde

CA-049

183843

8265846

3824

0.001

LH

Cabanaconde

CA-050

183976

8265752

3813

0.018

LIP

Cabanaconde

CA-050

183976

8265752

3813

0.018

LH

Coporaque

CO-061

213249

8272761

4320

2.830

LH

Coporaque

CO-098

215317

8270500

3725

Unknown

LIP

Coporaque

CO-100

215348

8269972

3631

8.650

LIP

Coporaque

CO-100

215348

8269972

3631

8.650

LH

Coporaque

CO-103

216622

8269577

3503

0.250

LIP

Coporaque

CO-103

216622

8269577

3503

0.250

LH

Coporaque

CO-105

217418

8276151

4293

0.060

LIP

Coporaque

CO-105

217418

8276151

4293

0.060

LH

Coporaque

CO-109

216403

8275673

4280

1.000

LH

Coporaque

CO-111

215685

8274320

4279

0.070

LH

Coporaque

CO-114

216953

8271034

3617

Unknown

LIP

Coporaque

CO-118

217006

8270976

3631

Unknown

LIP

Coporaque

CO-119

217088

8270660

3694

Unknown

LIP

Coporaque

CO-120

217049

8270321

3661

Unknown

LIP

Coporaque

CO-121

216548

8269211

3480

Unknown

LIP

Coporaque

CO-121

216548

8269211

3480

0.010

LH

Coporaque

CO-123

217059

8270556

3698

Unknown

LIP

Coporaque

CO-127

217416

8268928

3504

4.232

LIP

Coporaque

CO-127

217416

8268928

3504

4.230

LH

Coporaque

CO-128

218098

8269491

3548

Unknown

LIP

Coporaque

CO-147

218359

8268162

3522

Unknown

LIP

Coporaque

CO-148

218302

8268930

3520

Unknown

LIP

Coporaque

CO-149

217586

8268285

3492

Unknown

LIP

Coporaque

CO-150

216916

8268378

3455

1.401

LIP

Coporaque

CO-150

216916

8268378

3455

1.400

LH

Coporaque

CO-151

215101

8270357

3761

0.400

LIP

Coporaque

CO-151

215101

8270357

3761

0.400

LH

Coporaque

CO-153

215270

8270674

3837

0.010

LH

Coporaque

CO-154

215247

8270144

3709

Unknown

LIP

Coporaque

CO-156

214893

8275213

4407

0.010

LIP

Coporaque

CO-159

215155

8273897

4358

0.360

LH

Coporaque

CO-161

216353

8270521

3575

4.853

LIP

Coporaque

CO-161

216353

8270521

3575

4.850

LH

Coporaque

CO-163

217264

8268280

3462

5.746

LIP

Coporaque

CO-163

217264

8268280

3462

5.750

LH

Coporaque

CO-164

217199

8269331

3504

3.764

LIP

Coporaque

CO-164

217199

8269331

3504

3.760

LH

Coporaque

CO-165

217384

8268518

3489

Unknown

LIP

Coporaque

CO-166

217273

8268603

3487

Unknown

LIP

Coporaque

CO-167

217100

8268741

3487

Unknown

LIP

Coporaque

CO-168

217079

8269008

3487

Unknown

LIP

Coporaque

CO-169

217378

8269450

3519

Unknown

LIP

Lari

LA-003

203304

8271315

3369

48.1420

LH

Lari

LA-003–01

203254

8271596

3415

4.509

LIP

Lari

LA-003–02

202993

8271111

3353

3.380

LIP

Lari

LA-003–03

203368

8270815

3353

1.630

LIP

Lari

LA-005

206208

8270845

3751

Unknown

LIP

Lari

LA-005

206208

8270845

3751

0.003

LH

Lari

LA-006

205935

8270718

3694

0.007

LH

Lari

LA-007

205648

8270699

3600

0.014

LIP

Lari

LA-007

205648

8270699

3600

0.020

LH

Lari

LA-008

205437

8270739

3575

0.210

LIP

Lari

LA-008

205437

8270739

3575

0.245

LH

Lari

LA-009

205556

8270965

3633

Unknown

LIP

Lari

LA-009

205556

8270965

3633

0.350

LH

Lari

LA-010

203618

8270423

3375

0.105

LH

Lari

LA-012

205177

8270870

3586

Unknown

LIP

Lari

LA-012

205177

8270870

3586

0.340

LH

Lari

LA-014

204884

8270485

3477

0.015

LIP

Lari

LA-014

204884

8270485

3477

0.035

LH

Lari

LA-015

202991

8270111

3262

0.420

LIP

Lari

LA-015

202991

8270111

3262

0.820

LH

Lari

LA-016

202943

8270760

3344

0.460

LIP

Lari

LA-016

202943

8270760

3344

0.670

LH

Lari

LA-017

203170

8270724

3348

Unknown

LIP

Lari

LA-017

203170

8270724

3348

0.049

LH

Lari

LA-020

202708

8271035

3345

0.031

LIP

Lari

LA-020

202708

8271035

3345

0.071

LH

Lari

LA-021

202486

8270861

3335

3.635

LIP

Lari

LA-021

202486

8270861

3335

3.635

LH

Lari

LA-022

202665

8271595

3362

0.090

LIP

Lari

LA-022

202665

8271595

3362

0.210

LH

Lari

LA-024

203815

8270722

3378

Unknown

LIP

Lari

LA-024

203815

8270722

3378

0.024

LH

Lari

LA-025

203797

8270561

3374

Unknown

LIP

Lari

LA-025

203797

8270561

3374

0.140

LH

Lari

LA-027

202150

8271287

3332

4.950

LIP

Lari

LA-027

202150

8271287

3332

6.705

LH

Lari

LA-028

202445

8270602

3333

0.036

LH

Lari

LA-029

202295

8270711

3329

0.036

LH

Lari

LA-033

201393

8270792

3271

0.180

LH

Lari

LA-034

202392

8271701

3380

0.280

LH

Lari

LA-035

202090

8272042

3415

0.011

LIP

Lari

LA-035

202090

8272042

3415

0.015

LH

Lari

LA-036

201748

8271865

3385

0.090

LH

Lari

LA-037

201155

8272061

3405

Unknown

LIP

Lari

LA-038

202058

8271653

3370

0.530

LH

Lari

LA-041

201202

8271323

3304

0.420

LH

Lari

LA-043

200375

8271123

3279

0.024

LH

Lari

LA-045

200438

8270817

3240

0.027

LH

Lari

LA-046

200575

8270673

3214

0.003

LH

Lari

LA-047

202979

8271950

3500

0.060

LIP

Lari

LA-047

202979

8271950

3500

0.200

LH

Lari

LA-048

202504

8272273

3551

0.018

LIP

Lari

LA-048

202504

8272273

3551

0.042

LH

Lari

LA-049

202425

8272016

3412

0.063

LH

Lari

LA-069

205790

8272172

3884

0.021

LH

Lari

LA-082

205115

8271134

3685

0.200

LH

Lari

LA-083

204409

8270584

3509

1.200

LIP

Lari

LA-083

204409

8270584

3509

1.200

LH

Lari

LA-095

205977

8270953

3657

0.735

LIP

Lari

LA-095

205977

8270953

3657

1.475

LH

Lari

LA-098

205876

8269375

3351

0.354

LH

Lari

LA-098

205876

8269375

3351

0.150

LIP

Lari

LA-099

200382

8272398

3407

1.194

LIP

Lari

LA-099

200382

8272398

3407

1.194

LH

Lari

LA-101

201185

8274479

3753

Unknown

LIP

Lari

LA-101

201185

8274479

3753

0.035

LH

Yanque

YA-001

216265

8268291

3408

Unknown

LIP

Yanque

YA-001

216265

8268291

3408

0.510

LH

Yanque

YA-002

215683

8268489

3436

Unknown

LIP

Yanque

YA-002

215683

8268489

3436

0.060

LH

Yanque

YA-004

215826

8269015

3363

Unknown

LIP

Yanque

YA-004

215826

8269015

3363

0.610

LH

Yanque

YA-006

215356

8268989

3399

0.040

LH

Yanque

YA-007

215513

8268241

3434

Unknown

LIP

Yanque

YA-007

215513

8268241

3434

0.010

LH

Yanque

YA-008

214855

8268977

3353

Unknown

LIP

Yanque

YA-009

214900

8268680

3415

Unknown

LIP

Yanque

YA-010

215022

8268533

3426

0.030

LH

Yanque

YA-012

214079

8267557

3396

0.080

LH

Yanque

YA-014

214201

8266390

3477

Unknown

LIP

Yanque

YA-025

213472

8264813

3607

0.030

LH

Yanque

YA-029

214017

8265333

3554

Unknown

LIP

Yanque

YA-030

213605

8265689

3512

Unknown

LIP

Yanque

YA-032

214584

8265587

3601

1.861

LIP

Yanque

YA-032

214584

8265587

3601

1.860

LH

Yanque

YA-034

216578

8263465

4121

2.191

LIP

Yanque

YA-034

216578

8263465

4121

2.190

LH

Yanque

YA-040

216654

8263896

4083

0.150

LH

Yanque

YA-041

214962

8268034

3426

17.959

LIP

Yanque

YA-041

214962

8268034

3426

17.960

LH

Yanque

YA-042

214135

8268471

3388

0.010

LH

Yanque

YA-044

214611

8269129

3457

Unknown

LIP

Yanque

YA-045

214546

8269379

3505

1.505

LIP

Yanque

YA-045

214546

8269379

3505

1.510

LH

Yanque

YA-046

214467

8269045

3442

0.340

LH

Yanque

YA-047

214278

8268991

3446

Unknown

LIP

Yanque

YA-048

213784

8269166

3521

0.040

LIP

Yanque

YA-048

213784

8269166

3521

0.040

LH

Yanque

YA-050

213730

8269021

3478

4.265

LIP

Yanque

YA-050

213730

8269021

3478

4.260

LH

Yanque

YA-052

213617

8269209

3518

Unknown

LIP

Yanque

YA-052

213617

8269209

3518

0.030

LH

Yanque

YA-053

212937

8268836

3624

0.250

LIP

Yanque

YA-053

212937

8268836

3624

0.250

LH

Yanque

YA-054

213272

8268580

3518

1.754

LIP

Yanque

YA-054

213272

8268580

3518

1.750

LH

Yanque

YA-055

213583

8268638

3440

0.030

LH

Yanque

YA-056

213513

8268148

3468

Unknown

LIP

Yanque

YA-056

213513

8268148

3468

0.020

LH

Yanque

YA-059

214512

8270617

3762

Unknown

LIP

Yanque

YA-066

216288

8266268

3785

0.063

LIP

Yanque

YA-078

217557

8264939

4197

0.350

LH

Yanque

YA-082

218401

8262286

4559

0.010

LIP

Yanque

YA-088

216918

8262997

4223

0.697

LIP

Yanque

YA-089

216581

8262793

4168

0.260

LH

Yanque

YA-090

213417

8271951

4228

1.000

LH

Yanque

YA-093

212448

8272359

4264

0.749

LIP

Yanque

YA-093

212448

8272359

4264

0.750

LH

Yanque

YA-094

211952

8271998

4217

0.040

LH

Source: Data from Cabanaconde and Lari are from Doutriaux 2004.

(p.304) (p.305) (p.306) (p.307) (p.308) (p.309)

(p.310) YA-050, Uyu Uyu

Within the Yanque-Coporaque survey area, Uyu Uyu1 (YA-050) shares the top tier of the settlement hierarchy with San Antonio/Chijra (CO-100) dur-ing the LIP and the second tier during the Late Horizon. No previous excava-tions or systematic survey have been conducted at Uyu Uyu. In 1959, Neira visited Uyu Uyu for part of a day during his brief reconnaissance of the valley (Neira Avendaño 1961), and based on its impressive domestic architectural remains, he subsequently described the site as the “original capital of the Col-laguas” (Neira Avendaño 1990:172).

Uyu Uyu is located on a prominent mesa-like promontory on the north side of the river, within the agricultural sector of modern Yanque Urinsaya (see Figures 1.2, 4.23, and 4.24). The residential area of the site measures 4.26 ha in area and is composed of a dense concentration of 161 architectural spaces situated on low, broad domestic terraces. Based on differences in the size, distribution, and elaboration of domestic and Inka public architecture at the site, I argue that Uyu Uyu housed a diverse population of both Collagua elites and commoners and was a secondary administrative center under Inka rule.

Surrounding the site, the flanks of the promontory that Uyu Uyu occupies are covered by spectacular contour bench terraces that, due to their warm microclimate and frost-shedding properties, are especially valued by Yanque Urinsaya farmers today for their high maize productivity (fieldwork 1996, 2000). The overall site layout does not appear centrally organized but, in-stead, structured around the contours of domestic terraces that follow the local topography. The site forms a visually integrated whole with the agricul-tural terracing, and in this sense the site does not appear intrusive. Instead, the surrounding agricultural terracing accommodates the site, and their con-tours are followed by the domestic terraces in the settlement (see chapter 4, Figure 4.23). The initial construction of the current configuration of the surrounding bench terraces therefore probably coincides with the LIP occupation of the site. The primary canal for Yanque Urinsaya, the Misme canal, passes over a waterfall (Ccayra Cucho) just upslope of the northern end of the settlement before flowing westward to irrigate the bench terraces and valley bottom fields near Ichupampa to the west. A subsidiary canal branches from the Misme canal and runs alongside a path through the center of the site. Other feeder canals branch around the site to irrigate the surrounding terraces. Yanque villagers today plant crops on the former domestic terraces of Uyu Uyu, and crops are even cultivated inside of some large structures.

Several houses are grouped together on most terraces at Uyu Uyu, forming (p.311) residential compounds such that multiple structures were probably used by individual households, or that several, perhaps related or extended family households shared a patio space. While their layout does not appear rigidly planned, two configurations of these compounds can be distinguished. In some cases, several houses are situated side by side, with doorways opening in the same direction. This arrangement is common among small to medium houses, as in Structures 21, 22, and 23 (Figure 4.23). In contrast to this more open, linear arrangement, other compounds form an L-shaped configuration, usually with large and elaborate houses forming the short axis of the L across the width of the terrace, as in Structures 30–35 and 121–26, both part of compounds that include large elite houses.

I categorized 143 of the 161 structures at the site as houses, 139 of which were dated to the LIP/LH, and of these, 91 were complete enough to measure building footprints. Variability in house sizes provide one index of social inequality within the settlement's inhabitants. The LIP/LH houses at the site range in size from small 15-m2 dwellings to much larger and more elaborately constructed houses of up to 91 m2, many of which have tenon supports for a second floor or attic. The midspread (interquartile) range of house sizes (footprint areas) at the site falls between 31.6 and 53.7 m2, with a median size of 41.7 m2. Only the midspread range of house areas at San Antonio/Chijra (CO-100) is this high (see below). Some of the largest and most elaborately constructed houses in the survey area are found at Uyu Uyu. Based on their size and quality of masonry, I identified twelve houses (Structures 13, 24, 26, 31, 42, 65, 66, 104, 112, 114, 125, and 126) as elite residences at the site. All but two of these houses are in the top quartile at the site in terms of size and stand apart for their fine masonry. Most have especially impressive facades and tenon supports for a second floor. For example, the facade of Structure 104, a large house with an adjoining annex near the center of the site, is composed of well-fitted split river boulders (Figure A.1). Structures 24, 31, and 125 all have belt courses of white stones forming decorative horizontal stripes around the building. The largest houses at the site are also unusually tall structures. For example, the gable of Structure 31, the second largest house at the site, is 6 m high. In short, based on these very large and elaborate houses present, I infer that an elite kuraka class was present at Uyu Uyu, and residents at the site, together with those from San Antonio/Chijra, were generally of high social status.

Furthermore, eight of the 12 elite houses (Structures 125, 126, 65, 66, 42, 114, 112, and 104) are clustered in the center of the site, situated either adjacent to one another or on the same terrace. These elite houses surround the north and west sides of a plaza, which is enclosed on its western side by an Inka (p.312)

Appendix Principal LIP/LH Settlements in the Yanque-Coporaque Survey Area

Figure A.1. Facade of Structure 104 at Uyu Uyu, from the east. Note tenon supports for second floor and clay plaster on interior wall surface.

great hall structure. This close spatial relationship between local elite residences and Inka architecture associated with public ritual and display of state largesse is suggestive of how local elites gained in status by their participation in Inka administration of the central valley.

CO-100, San Antonio/Chijra

Covering 12 ha, San Antonio/Chijra is the second largest settlement (after YA-041, Yanque) in the survey by aerial measure, and the second largest (after YA-050, Uyu Uyu) by prehispanic house count (n = 136). The site spans much of the eastern and southern flanks of Yurac Ccacca, a prominent peak reaching 3,817 m on the north side of the Colca River. The two toponym areas of the site are divided by a prominent ridge. San Antonio includes the terraces and buildings on a promontory and slopes on the eastern of the ridge, while Chijra encompasses the houses and terracing to the west of the ridge on the broad, basin-shaped southern slopes of Yurac Ccacca (Figure A.2). I have included both habitational sectors as a single site because all features are within 100 m of each other and the areas were occupied coevally.

Unlike Uyu Uyu, most of San Antonio/Chijra is situated on steep, terraced hillsides that today are divided between upper, abandoned bench

Appendix Principal LIP/LH Settlements in the Yanque-Coporaque Survey Area

Figure A.2. Air photo of San Antonio/Chijra (CO-100).

(p.313) terraces and lower, currently cultivated bench terraces. The lower terraces are irrigated by two canals, called the San Antonio and Ccayra. Virtually all of the architectural remains at the site are within the upper band of abandoned bench terraces. Prior to their abandonment during the colonial pe-riod (see chapter 5; cf. Denevan 1987), these upper terraces were irrigated by water from a reservoir to the northeast of the peak of Yurac Ccacca, flowing past Chilacota (site CO-151; see chapter 7) before running through Chijra as an aqueduct. This aqueduct splits near the center of Chijra to irrigate the terraces above the other two canals (Denevan 2001; Treacy and Denevan 1986). The terraces below these two canals are currently used primarily for maize cultivation, as they were during the colonial era. Downslope of the site lies the Waykiri area, a large basin of contour terraces and valley bot-tom fields situated in the warmest microclimate in Coporaque particularly valued today for its high productivity (Córdova Aguilar et al. 1986:64–65; Treacy 1989b). Immediately upslope of Waykiri are massive complexes of linear bench terraces (in the Alto Ccayra and Ccayra toponyms areas) that span the southern flanks of Yurac Ccacca just below Chijra. Vertical end (p.314) walls divide these terraces into regularly sized irrigation sectors. Their layout was clearly centrally planned, perhaps dividing the irrigation sectors into regularly sized production units.2

These bench terraces continue upslope through San Antonio/Chijra and serve as domestic terraces for houses. But “domestic” terraces are not set apart as such; rather, houses were built on the surrounding agricultural terraces. As discussed previously, findings from excavations conducted by Malpass, de la Vera, and Neira in Chijra indicate that these terraces probably originate in the LIP, but their current configuration is most likely a product of subsequent modification during the Late Horizon (Denevan 2001; Malpass 1987; Treacy 1989b). Ceramic collections also indicate a larger occupation during the Late Horizon. Out of the total sample of 294 sherds we collected at the site, Late Horizon (Collagua III, Collagua Inka, and Inka) sherds outnumbered LIP (Collagua I and II) sherds by three to one—136 versus 46 sherds, respectively. I suspect, therefore, that most of the standing houses at the site were built during the latter part of the LIP or the Late Horizon.

During the survey, I divided Chijra into three sectors, registered as Sectors J, K, and L (Figure A.2).3 Sector J encompasses a cluster of eight houses to the west near a relict aqueduct.4 Sector K, located in the center of the slope, is composed of agricultural terraces with 18 dispersed (generally poorly pre-served) houses and looted tombs. As an arbitrary measure, I demarcated the eastern side of Sector K just east of the massive Structure 17, the second larg-est house at the site (Figure A.2). Sector L, where we registered five houses, is the farthest sector to the east in the Chijra area and borders the ridgeline that separates it from the San Antonio area. Sector M is comprised of a dense cluster of 91 houses on the eastern-facing slope, and Sector N is the promon-tory topped by a the doctrina chapel (see chapter 5).

Previous research at the site consists of a brief initial visit to the San Antonio sector of the site by Neira in 1959 and a much more intensive investigation of the Chijra area as part of the Río Colca Abandoned Terrace Project. Neira initially described the large structures on and surrounding the promontory at the southeastern corner of the site. Apparently referring to the large struc-ture on the top of the promontory, Neira has referred to San Antonio as the most important “sanctuary” in the valley (Neira Avendaño 1990:152).5 In Chijra, research focused on understanding the construction, use, and abandonment sequence of agricultural terraces. Reconnaissance and test-pit excava-tions were conducted at one house and five terraces in Chijra (Malpass 1986, 1987; Malpass and de la Vera Cruz Chávez 1986, 1990; Neira Avendaño 1986; Treacy and Denevan 1986). Malpass (1987:51) reports seven houses on and around the terraces excavated by the Denevan team. Although they did not (p.315) systematically survey the rest of the settlement, Treacy and Denevan report a total of 51 structures in the combined San Antonio/Chijra area.

In general, architectural preservation was not as good as at Uyu Uyu, in large part from more intense looting of worked cornerstones from structures, leaving their walls vulnerable to collapse.6 We recorded 177 structures at San Antonio/Chijra, 136 of which I defined as LIP/LH houses—three fewer than at Uyu Uyu. Of these, 105 houses are densely packed on the terraced slopes and promontory of San Antonio and 31 are dispersed throughout the terraces of Chijra.

The architectural data from San Antonio clearly signal the presence of an elite class and marked social inequalities within the resident population. Forty-one (30 percent) of the 136 houses at San Antonio/Chijra were com-plete enough to measure building footprints—a lower percentage than at Uyu Uyu but a large sample nonetheless. House sizes vary widely between 14.0 and 136.5 m2. This range is broader than at Uyu Uyu, and as discussed above, the two largest houses at the site, Structures 93 and 17, are the largest in the survey area. As a group, houses at San Antonio are very large, equaled only by Uyu Uyu. The midspread of house sizes ranged from 25.0 to 52.0 m2, and the median house area of 37.5 m2 is matched only by houses at Uyu Uyu, reflecting the generally large size of houses and high status of their inhabitants relative to the other sites in the survey.

Elite houses are concentrated on the eastern-facing terraced slopes of San Antonio in Sector M, as well as the promontory of Sector N. All of these elite houses are in the top house-size quartile (greater than 52.0 m2)7 and are constructed of coursed, tabular (Type 5) masonry. However, these represent only structures complete enough to measure area and observe masonry style; among less-complete structures there are almost certainly more elite houses in Sectors M and N. In general, houses are larger in Sectors M and N than in the rest of the site (with a mean house area of 47.8 m2 vs. 38.1 m2 for Sectors J–L). Sixteen of the 19 houses in the third quartile (between 37.5 and 52.0 m2) are located in Sectors M and N. Small- and medium-sized houses are also interspersed throughout this sector, but it is clearly a high-status area of the site. Six of the seven houses I identified as elite residences are also located there. The largest house at the site (and in the survey), Structure 93, is situated on a 4.5-m-high terrace on the upper eastern slope of Sector M, overlooking the promontory and valley bottom below. Other elite houses, such as Structures 84, 85, and 87, are closely aligned side by side lower down on the hillside. The second largest house, Structure 17, stands out as an isolated structure in the center of the southern slope of the Chijra area, near its eastern end. This 14-×-12-m building is especially impressive for its tabular masonry on both (p.316) exterior and interior wall facings and especially well executed corners. It was also probably a very tall structure, since there are tenon supports for a second floor on all four walls.

As at Uyu Uyu, these local elite houses are closely associated with at least one and possibly two prominently situated Inka great halls. As discussed above, the larger of the two (Structure 154) occupies the saddle between the promontory of Sector N and the terraced hillside of Sector M, thus straddling the point of access between the two sectors (see Figure 4.25). Also similar to its counterpart at Uyu Uyu, Structure 154 is fronted by a probable plaza—in this case, a level 18-×-28-m terrace that spans the remaining width of the saddle. A second rustic Inka structure (Structure 64) is situated just west of the ridgeline separating sectors Chijra and San Antonio. Like the other great halls, this structure opens to a terraced plaza or large patio space (26.5 × 15.0 m) just off the main path that runs along this ridge.

CO-127, Llanka

Llanka (CO-127) is a large, dispersed village to the southeast of Kitaplaza, on the Qal 5 pampa to the north and east of the pukara fortifications discussed in chapter 4 (Figure A.3). The settlement is composed of 88 small- to medium-sized houses amid agricultural fields and terraces. The relative homogeneity of house sizes and the predominance of Inka polychrome ceramics suggest a strong state presence in the establishment and occupation of the site. The primary occupation of the site clearly dates to the Late Horizon; we collected only six LIP sherds, as opposed to 64 Late Horizon sherds, 16 percent of which were polychromes—the highest percentage of Late Horizon polychromes of any settlement in the survey.8

Houses at Llanka are distributed in various orientations at the site and there is no centralized planning apparent in its overall layout. Many of the houses adjoin one another, suggesting that households probably used more than one structure, forming small domestic compounds similar to those of Uyu Uyu. While the overall layout of the settlement suggest household-level planning, house sizes are much more homogeneous than at other sites and tend to be quite small. The midspread of house areas ranges between only 16 and 25 m2. All but three are built of uncoursed Type 1 or Type 2 masonry. The larger structures at the site are discretely clustered on the south end of the site, but even these are only in the median size range of houses at Uyu Uyu and San Antonio.

Overall, Llanka appears to have been a settlement of commoner agriculturalists established (or at least considerably expanded) during the Inka (p.317)

Appendix Principal LIP/LH Settlements in the Yanque-Coporaque Survey Area

Figure A.3. Air photo of Llanka (CO-127), including canals. Path in upper right leads to Kitaplaza (CO-164) to the northwest, and to terracing and the settlement of Tunsa (CO-163) to the south.

occupation of the valley. Given the homogeneity of house sizes and high percentage of Inka polychrome ceramics, I suggest that this site may represent a settlement established with direct state management and oversight.

CO-164, Kitaplaza

Kitaplaza (CO-164) is located about 350 m northwest of Llanka (CO-127) along the modern road between Chivay and Coporaque. A major path di-verges from the road and passes to the north of a central open space between the two distinct residential sectors of the site, leading eventually to Llanka (p.318) and surrounding agricultural fields to the southeast (Figure A.4). To the adjacent north of the site are linear bench terraces that cover the southern flanks of Pampa Finaya—the Mosoqchacra (“new field”) toponym sector. Surrounding the other sides of the site are valley bottom fields and terraces on the slopes between the Qal 5 and Qal 4 alluvial surfaces. Although the site produced a handful (n = 4) of Middle Horizon sherds, the primary occupations of the site are from the LIP and Late Horizon, and based on the predominance of Late Horizon ceramics, I suspect that the site grew con-siderably during under Inka occupation. We collected 23 LIP (six Collagua I and 17 Collagua II) sherds and 54 Late Horizon sherds (19 Collagua III, 32 Collagua Inka, and three Inka sherds).

Most of the standing architecture probably dates to the Late Horizon. Houses are not aligned by any overall site layout design but form residential compounds, with two or three houses oriented around small patio spaces. The 74 LIP/LH houses at the site are mostly in the small to medium size range; the largest houses only reach the median house size at San Antonio/ Chijra (CO-100) and Uyu Uyu (YA-050). All but two are of low-quality Type

Appendix Principal LIP/LH Settlements in the Yanque-Coporaque Survey Area

Figure A.4. Air photo of Kitaplaza (CO-164). Note two housing sectors separated by major path from the main road.

(p.319) 1 and Type 2 masonry. The two houses of higher quality masonry are made of coursed, rectangular, and ovoid worked blocks (Type 6 masonry). Together with these more elaborate houses in the southern residential sector is a possible Inka ceremonial or public structure at the site. As discussed above, a large (13.4-×-5-m) rectangular structure with windows on either side of its facade is not consistent with Collagua domestic architectural canons and may be an Inka structure, similar to the smaller of the two great halls at San Antonio/Chijra. As in the better-documented cases of Inka public architecture in the survey, this building fronts a small plaza-like space near the center of the site.

Much like the nearby site of Llanka, Kitaplaza appears to have been a large commoner agriculturalist settlement occupied primarily during the LIP and Late Horizon. The site represents a typical mid-sized agriculturalist village within the local LIP/LH settlement pattern.

CO-150, Llactapampa, and CO-163, Tunsa

Llactapampa (CO-150) and Tunsa (CO-163) are both situated on the Qal 4 river terrace above the river gorge to the south of Coporaque, directly downslope and to the south of the three pukara fortifications discussed in chapter 4 (see Figure 4.26). They clearly housed a diverse population of agriculturalists, including local elites, and probably functioned as distinct sectors of a single large settlement, since they are less than 150 m apart and were coevally occupied. Combined, Llactapampa (20 houses) and Tunsa (70 houses) would form the fourth largest settlement in the survey.

With 70 houses dispersed over 5.75 ha, Tunsa is much larger than Llactapampa. The midspread range of house sizes at Tunsa (20–37 m2) is lower than that of Uyu Uyu and San Antonio (21–42 m2 and 25–53 m2, respectively), but there are also clearly elite houses at the site. As was the case at Uyu Uyu and San Antonio, the elite houses of Tunsa are situated near a great hall facing an open space that probably functioned as a plaza at the entrance to the site. This plaza area divides the settlement in two. Most of the houses are located to the east of the plaza, in valley bottom fields and surrounding low hillsides. Houses span the full range of size and quality of construction, including a very large (78 m2) house of fine Type 5 masonry on all sides. To the west, a smaller area with 15 houses occupies a low hill behind the great hall. Here, another very large house (72 m2) is situated along the north edge of the hill.

About 130 m to the northwest of the great hall at Tunsa, the 20 houses at the site of Llactapampa (CO-150) are generally large and well constructed, (p.320) and the site as a whole may have functioned as an elite sector associated with the great hall of Tunsa. Only two houses at Llactapampa are of uncoursed, unworked Type 1 masonry, and the smallest house is 24 m2—considerably larger than the low-end range of other sites in the survey. Four houses are especially large and well made: two of coursed, tabular masonry (Type 5) and two of coursed, dressed fieldstone (Type 3). These structures are of similar quality and size as the elite houses of San Antonio/Chijra.

In sum, Tunsa and Llactapampa together probably formed a large town with an internally differentiated population that included both elites and commoners. The central placement of an Inka great hall between the elite houses of Tunsa and Llactapampa suggests the centrality of state public ritual in local Inka administration as well as the importance of local elites as mediat-ing agents between local communities and the state.

YA-054, Llactarana

Llactarana is a small hamlet and associated ceramic scatter situated among irrigated bench terraces about half a kilometer to the southwest of Uyu Uyu (Figure A.5). The site is located just above the present course of the Misme canal, in a band of abandoned linear bench terraces that were previously ir-rigated by the canal when its course was slightly higher on the hillside. The present course of the canal thus forms the line between presently abandoned and cultivated terraces around the site. The site is covered by a dense ceramic scatter, and 254 diagnostics were recovered, including 54 LIP (15 Collagua I and 39 Collagua II) and 129 Late Horizon (23 Collagua III, 101 Collagua Inka, and 15 Inka) sherds. We divided the site into four sectors (Sectors A–D) based on surface features and artifact concentrations. Sector A is defined by a small rubble mound feature with possible cyst tombs (all badly eroded) in association with a dense ceramic scatter. The ceramic concentration contin-ues downslope into abandoned terraces in Sector B. Sector C, to the adjacent north of Sectors A and B, is the architectural core of the site. We were able to map seven houses at the site (Figure A.6), but because of terrace wall collapse and heavy cactus growth, preservation of these structures was generally poor, and I suspect that other structures are no longer surficially visible. Six of the seven houses (Structures 1–5, and 7) are small to medium in size (20–37 m2), and the seventh (Structure 6) is poorly preserved but considerably larger. Several houses share single terraces at the site, and all face downslope to the east, but no residential compounds as such could be defined. Overall, the architectural evidence suggests that Llactarana was an undifferentiated hamlet (p.321)

Appendix Principal LIP/LH Settlements in the Yanque-Coporaque Survey Area

Figure A.5. Air photo of Llactarana with surrounding terracing and location relative to Uyu Uyu (YA-050). Note abandoned terraces above modern canal course.

with a handful of households that probably maintained close contact with residents of the neighboring major settlement of Uyu Uyu. Sector D consists of a ceramic scatter that continues across the abandoned terraces to the north of the residential area of Sector C. (p.322)
Appendix Principal LIP/LH Settlements in the Yanque-Coporaque Survey Area

Figure A.6. Architectural map, habitational sector of Llactarana (YA-054).

YA-041 and CO-161, Yanque and Coporaque

Both reducción villages in the survey, Yanque (YA-041) and Coporaque (CO-161), are situated on top of LIP/LH settlements. Especially in the case of Yanque, the provincial capital of the Collaguas Province during the colonial era, the presence of what appears to have been the largest settlement in the central valley was probably the decisive factor regarding where to locate the reducción. Both are also located on the pampa of the Qal 4 alluvial surface—the broad, gently sloping terrace above the river gorge—and are surrounded by large expanses of valley bottom fields.

The settlement at Yanque was almost certainly the largest prehispanic settlement in the survey area. It also appears to have been the primary Inka administrative center for the central valley and possibly for the Collaguas province as a whole. The results of the street survey indicate that the prehispanic settlement of Yanque was concentrated in the northern half of the present reducción, where sherd densities are markedly higher. Collagua I (n = 7) and Collagua II (n = 19) sherds were too few and too dispersed throughout the reducción to reliably estimate a site area for the LIP. However, the site produced the largest collection of Late Horizon ceramics of any site in the survey, with 209 sherds (six Collagua III, 168 Collagua Inka, and 35 Inka). As another indicator of a strong Inka presence, 15 percent of Late Horizon sherds were polychromes—second only to Llanka in terms of percentage of polychromes in Late Horizon collections.9

Also, as I discussed above, architectural remains at Yanque include the (p.323)

Appendix Principal LIP/LH Settlements in the Yanque-Coporaque Survey Area

Figure A.7. Colonial/Republican era house in Yanque (YA-041) constructed with probable prehispanic (Type 6) masonry.

only examples of Inka cut-stone masonry in the survey. Assuming that these blocks were not moved a great distance from another settlement, their presence indicates that the settlement was an important political center under Inka rule. Dispersed throughout the northeastern quadrant of the village, other colonial- and republican-era buildings constructed of a conglomerate of unworked fieldstone and tabular and rectangular cut-stone blocks reveal the presence of what were probably large, elite Collagua houses. Many are identical to the Type 6 masonry of Collagua houses (e.g., Figure A.7), and other thin, tabular blocks interspersed in some house walls were probably from the corners, doorways, and wall heads of prehispanic houses.

By contrast, Coporaque appears to have been a much smaller settlement, and the late prehispanic occupations are much more ephemeral. These findings are contrary to expectations, since as discussed in chapter 4, Coporaque, based on the account of Oré (1992 [1598]:159 [41]), is widely cited in the literature as the Inkaic capital of Collaguas (Cook 1982, 2002; Málaga Medina 1977; Neira Avendaño 1990). Our ceramic collections were scant in Coporaque—the survey crew collected only 15 LIP and Late Horizon sherds. Architectural evidence of the LIP and Late Horizon occupations of Coporaque is also limited and somewhat ambiguous. On the one hand, no Cuzco Inka stonemasonry is present, and we identified only one house of probable prehispanic origin. This large house of tabular (Type 6) masonry is positioned diagonally (p.324)

Appendix Principal LIP/LH Settlements in the Yanque-Coporaque Survey Area

Figure A.8. Church of Coporaque from the north. This structure is built of thin tabular (Type 5) masonry that was probably mined from the surrounding LIP/LH sites.

relative to the street grid in the southeast corner of the village, breaking with the otherwise regular orientation of houses in relation to the streets.10 It was modified after its original construction with an internal wall that separates the structure into two separate rooms. A handful of other houses, concentrated in the southern half of the village, incorporate tabular (Type 6) and rectangular (Type 7) worked blocks of probable prehispanic origin but were clearly con-structed and used during colonial or even republican times. Also, the church of Coporaque (one of the only such original reducción churches stills stand-ing in Peru) is built of tabular (Type 6) and rectangular (Type 7) masonry (Figures A.8 and A.9). Given the paucity of ceramic collections in Coporaque and the widespread evidence of cornerstone mining at the nearby sites of San Antonio/Chijra (CO-100), Tunsa (CO-163), and Llactapampa (CO-150), the vast majority of the blocks used to construct these buildings appear to have been transported from these sites.

YA-093, Jibillea, and CO-061

Jibillea (YA-093) and CO-061 are both small herding villages located in the puna to the north of the river. Jibillea is composed of 12 circular houses (4–7 m in diameter) and associated rock-walled corrals, and we registered eight circular structure foundations of similar size at CO-061, also in association (p.325)

Appendix Principal LIP/LH Settlements in the Yanque-Coporaque Survey Area

Figure A.9. Detail of masonry, northwest corner of church of Coporaque.

with corral features (Figure A.10). These two sites are representative of a broader pattern of expanded settlement and intensification of pastoralist production in the puna under Inka rule. As discussed in chapter 4, nine of the 16 Late Horizon settlements lacking LIP components are puna pastoralist settlements, but several other settlements with only small LIP components such as Jibillea clearly grew considerably during Inka rule.

The ceramic assemblages at both sites indicate that both Jibillea and (p.326)

Appendix Principal LIP/LH Settlements in the Yanque-Coporaque Survey Area

Figure A.10. Circular house and adjoining corral at Jibillea (YA-093).

CO-061 were either established or significantly expanded under Inka rule. At Jibillea we recovered 41 Late Horizon sherds but only one Middle Horizon and two LIP (Collagua II) sherds, while CO-061 produced no LIP ceramics and 40 Late Horizon sherds. Also, a large proportion of the Late Horizon ceramics are fancy Inka wares. Polychromes made up 15 percent of Late Horizon ceramics from Jibillea and 13 percent from CO-061, only slightly less than Yanque (YA-041), which had the highest proportion of Late Horizon polychromes (16 percent) and comparable to that of Llanka (CO-127) with 15 percent.11

Both settlements are also situated near large relict reservoirs. Two reservoirs are located near CO-061, one directly north of the residential area of the site and another 200 m southeast of the site. Another large reservoir is located to the immediate west of Jibillea. The general expansion of settlement in the puna during the Late Horizon and the close association between these two sites and large hydraulic features suggest that Jibillea and CO-061 were established as intensive herding settlements under Inka rule. The high percentage of elaborate polychrome Inka ceramics at these sites also hints at ties of reciprocity. Perhaps these prestige goods were mobilized by the state in exchange for labor service of these herding populations.

Notes:

(1.) Alternate spellings: Ullullu, Uyo Uyo, also called Yanque Viejo.

(2.) Some of the terraces in Ccayra were reconstructed in the 1980s and 1990s by DESCO (a Peruvian NGO), but these are easily distinguishable from the surrounding ancient terraces.

(3.) Sectors A–I are composed of isolated tomb features and chullpas on the surrounding boulder-strewn ridges.

(4.) This is the area where the Denevan team focused most of their excavations in the early 1980s (see Malpass 1987).

(5.) Chapter 5 presents evidence indicating that this structure was an early colonial cha-pel built by Franciscans sometime between their arrival in the valley during 1540s and prior to the forced resettlement of the populations to the reducciones in the early 1570s.

(6.) I infer that cornerstones have been looted in part because the natural collapse pattern is the reverse—that is, because the corners are the strongest part of the building, especially if well executed with alternating headers and spanners, they are typically the last portion of a structure standing. Thus walls normally collapse inward first due to the batter (inward-leaning angle) of the walls, and the corners are left standing. This point is also illustrated for Inca architecture by Protzen (Protzen 1993:234, Fig. 13.21). Also, many of the cornerstones from San Antonio and other settlements around Coporaque were probably used to build the church there, which is the only sixteenth-century church in the reducciones of the Colca Valley that has remained largely intact. In contrast to the other churches of the valley, which, in the wake of earthquakes during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were rebuilt mostly or entirely of ashlar masonry of volcanic tuff (called sillar) brought to the valley from the puna heights to the south, the walls of the Church of Coporaque are constructed of thin, tabular masonry of the same characteristics as the Type 5 masonry of prehispanic houses at San Antonio, Tunsa, and Llactapampa in Coporaque. See the following chapter for further discussion.

(7.) Or, in the case of Structure 93, the largest house at the site (and in the survey) is an upper outlier in terms of area, measuring 13.0 × 10.5 m (136.5 m2). Upper outliers are those 1.5–3 times the midspread range above the median.

(8.) Excluding sites with few (less than 20) Late Horizon sherds.

(9.) This excludes sites with small samples (less than 20) of Late Horizon sherds. The only site with a higher percentage of Late Horizon polychromes is Llanka (CO-127).

(10.) This structure has recently been encroached upon and damaged by the construction of a hotel complex. The hotel uses this “Inka” house as its centerpiece and is now surrounded by guest rooms.

(11.) Interestingly, both sites also produced probable Chucuito style rim sherds from plates, signaling trade ties between these herding settlements and those of the northwestern Titicaca basin.