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Brazilian PropagandaLegitimizing an Authoritarian Regime$

Nina Schneider

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780813049908

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: January 2015

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813049908.001.0001

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(p.119) Appendix 1 Sources and Methods

(p.119) Appendix 1 Sources and Methods

Source:
Brazilian Propaganda
Publisher:
University Press of Florida

Throughout the book I use different references for each film. The “F”-number (FE. or FI.) indicates the original description used in the AERP and ARP catalogues of the 1960s and 1970s, and the “EH.-Fil.”number is the old archive description of the film. The National Archives in Rio has recently renamed its film material. While I worked with film codes starting with “EH.-Fil.” followed by a number, they now have a longer name that provides detailed reference to the film series. In the captions I use the original description from the production catalogues (e.g., F. 35), the new archive code (BR AN Rio EH.0.Fil.Fit.127 ANO 1970), and the old archive designation that I used to work with (EH.-Fil. 934). Cláudio and Valeria from the National Archives in Rio kindly supplied a partial conversion list, and I compiled a table listing all three descriptions. The table's purpose is to help future researchers to allocate the films; I filled in the table to the extent that the information was available (otherwise the column for the new designation is left blank).

When I went to the National Archives I first had to find the 123 propaganda films, view them, and match them one by one with the original numbers in the AERP and ARP catalogues to find out when they were produced. During that process two problems occurred. First, numerous films were not listed in the catalogues, and I concluded that either they had not been produced between 1969 and 1977 or they had been produced by another institution. Thus if the FE. or FI. number is blank in the table, it means that these films were not listed in the production catalogues. Second, the National Archives collection only holds seven AERP films (7.4 percent of the total sample) and none for the years 1974 and 1975. The total figures are calculated from the number of AERP and ARP films found in the archive sample (106). As the catalogue does not list films from 1969, it must be deduced that production started in 1970. The remaining years included the following AERP films: 1970: EH.-Fil. 756 (F. 37) and (p.120) EH.-Fil. 934 (F. 35); 1971: EH.-Fil. 932 (F. 69) and EH.-Fil. 933 (F. 66); no films from 1972; and 1973: EH.-Fil. 749 (F. 151), EH.-Fil. 935 (F. 123), and EH.-Fil. 936 (F. 126). Most films were from 1976 (23.2 percent) and 1977 (40 percent). This sample collected from the National Archive in Rio comprises only 4.1 percent of the total AERP film production (1970–1973) and 43 percent of the total ARP film production (1974–1977).

The ARP films hosted by the National Archives are listed in the table, whereby the original production number can be provided for the years 1976 and 1977. The ARP code for film EH.-Fil. 787 (1976) remains unclear, but the ARP trailer clearly identifies it as an ARP production. The catalogue lists a similar film (FI. 3), but with a different voice-over text than that displayed in archive film EH.-Fil. 787. Perhaps the text was amended afterward and the catalogue was not updated. For 1977, three filmetes do not have a trailer number given by the archive, but were named arbitrarily XXXX (FI. 70), WWWW (FE. 42), and DDDD (FE. 42); so films EH.-Fil. DDDD and WWWW are the same film (FE. 42). The ARP filmetes finished with a logo in the shape of Brazil. Therefore, the thirty-eight unknown films (40 percent) show that this specific trailer must have been produced in 1978/1979, the years for which the ARP catalogues are missing. This is substantiated by the voice-overs of four films that confirm that they were produced in 1978/1979. One film was produced in 1978 and the other three in 1979 (1978: EH.-Fil. 759; 1979: EH.-Fil. 754, 765, and 766). EH.-Fil. 804 does not have a trailer, but it looks like an ARP film. This is the only film without a trailer that I considered to be produced by the ARP without any further evidence. In addition, errors might derive from the original production catalogues themselves.

The total number of identifiable AERP and ARP films located in the National Archives amounts to 106 films; the other films were duplicates or made by other producers. These films are EH.-Fil. 697, EH.-Fil. 698, EH.-Fil. 699, EH.-Fil. 700, and EH.-Fil. 701 (1968); films that are duplicated are EH.-Fil. DDDD (=WWWW [FE. 42, 1977]) and EH.-Fil. CCCC (=809, 1978/79?); films that were supposedly produced during the Médici government, but not by the AERP, because they are not listed in the catalogues, are EH.-Fil. 915, EH.-Fil. 901, EH.-Fil. 889, and a group of other films (EH.-Fil. 704, EH.-Fil. 705, EH.-Fil. 740, EH.-Fil. 741, EH.-Fil. 793, EH.-Fil. 722, and EH.-Fil. 804). “Others” include three films covering the “people's movement against inflation” (EH.-Fil. 740, EH.-Fil. 741, and EH.-Fil. 793), possibly created by a state department, and one film of the Fraternity Campaign (EH.-Fil. 804). The Fraternity Campaign (p.121) is an annual campaign that has run since 1964 and is organized by the Brazilian National Bishops' Conference (CNBB). The three remaining films could not be identified at all (EH.-Fil. 889, EH.-Fil. 901, and EH.-Fil. 915). Those might also have been productions of the secretaries of state. Five filmetes were produced by Hernani D'Aguiar in 1968. They did not feature in the AERP catalogue, were shot in black and white, did not finish with the typical trailer, and, most importantly, had a different aesthetic style (EH.-Fil. 697, 698, 699, 700, and EH.-Fil. 701). They looked like obvious propaganda and repeated euphoric slogans like “Great Brazil” (see, for example, films EH.-Fil. 697 or EH.-Fil. 701). (p.122)

Table 2. Propaganda film conversion list

Producer

Year

Original production number

Old archival code

New archival code

1

AERP

1970

F. 37

EH.-Fil. 756

2

AERP

1970

F. 35

EH.-Fil. 934

BR AN RIO EH.0.FIL. FIT.127 ANO 1970

3

AERP

1971

F. 69

EH.-Fil. 932

BR AN RIO EH.0.FIL. FIT.125 ANO 1971

4

AERP

1971

F. 66

EH.-Fil. 933

BR AN RIO EH.0.FIL. FIT.126 ANO 1971

5

AERP

1973

F. 151

EH.-Fil. 749

6

AERP

1973

F. 123

EH.-Fil. 935

7

AERP

1973

F. 126

EH.-Fil. 936

8

ARP

1976

FI. 39

EH.-Fil. 706

BR AN RIO EH.0.FIL. FIT.10 ANO 1976

9

ARP

1976

FI. 47

EH.-Fil. 707

10

ARP

1976

FI. 27

EH.-Fil. 709

11

ARP

1976

FI. 4

EH.-Fil. 711

12

ARP

1976

FI. 36

EH.-Fil. 712

13

ARP

1976

FE. 16

EH.-Fil. 713

BR AN RIO EH.0.FIL. FIT.17 ANO 1976

14

ARP

1976

FE. 15

EH.-Fil. 715

15

ARP

1976

FE. 12

EH.-Fil. 716

16

ARP

1976

FE. 13

EH.-Fil. 717

17

ARP

1976

FE. 10/A

EH.-Fil. 718

18

ARP

1976

FI. 52

EH.-Fil. 719

19

ARP

1976

FI. 33

EH.-Fil. 769

20

ARP

1976

FI. 35

EH.-Fil. 770

21

ARP

1976

FI. 15

EH.-Fil. 771

BR AN RIO EH.0.FIL. FIT.75 ANO 1976

22

ARP

1976

FI. 25

EH.-Fil. 772

BR AN RIO EH.0.FIL. FIT.76 ANO 1976

23

ARP

1976

FI. 38

EH.-Fil. 773

24

ARP

1976

FI. 46

EH.-Fil. 774

25

ARP

1976

FI. 48

EH.-Fil. 776

26

ARP

1976

FI. 49

EH.-Fil. 777

27

ARP

1976

FE. 14

EH.-Fil. 779

28

ARP

1976

FI. 51

EH.-Fil. YYYY

29

ARP

1976

? FI. 3

EH.-Fil. 787

30

ARP

1977

FI. 65

EH.-Fil. 710

31

ARP

1977

FI. 74

EH.-Fil. 720

32

ARP

1977

FI. 71

EH.-Fil. 721

33

ARP

1977

FI. 73

EH.-Fil. 723

34

ARP

1977

FE. 20

EH.-Fil. 724

35

ARP

1977

FE. 21

EH.-Fil. 725

36

ARP

1977

FE. 29

EH.-Fil. 726

37

ARP

1977

FE. 22

EH.-Fil. 727

38

ARP

1977

FE. 26

EH.-Fil. 728

BR AN RIO EH.0.FIL. FIT.32 ANO 1977

39

ARP

1977

FE. 23A

EH.-Fil. 729

40

ARP

1977

FE. 25

EH.-Fil. 730

41

ARP

1977

FE. 34

EH.-Fil. 731

42

ARP

1977

FE. 33

EH.-Fil. 732

43

ARP

1977

FE. 24

EH.-Fil. 733

44

ARP

1977

FE. 35

EH.-Fil. 734

45

ARP

1977

FE. 18

EH.-Fil. 735

46

ARP

1977

FE. 41

EH.-Fil. 736

47

ARP

1977

FE. 38

EH.-Fil. 737

48

ARP

1977

FI. 85

EH.-Fil. 738

49

ARP

1977

FI. 87

EH.-Fil. 739

50

ARP

1977

FE. 52

EH.-Fil. 742

51

ARP

1977

FE. 55

EH.-Fil. 743

52

ARP

1977

FI. 58

EH.-Fil. 781

53

ARP

1977

FI. 69

EH.-Fil. 783

54

ARP

1977

FI. 72

EH.-Fil. 784

55

ARP

1977

FI. 60

EH.-Fil. 785

56

ARP

1977

FI. 75

EH.-Fil. 786

57

ARP

1977

FI. 57

EH.-Fil. 788

58

ARP

1977

FE. 23

EH.-Fil. 789

59

ARP

1977

FE. 32

EH.-Fil. 791

60

ARP

1977

FE. 47

EH.-Fil. 795

61

ARP

1977

FE. 46

EH.-Fil. 796

62

ARP

1977

FE. 51

EH.-Fil. 797

63

ARP

1977

FE. 44

EH.-Fil. 798

64

ARP

1977

FE. 53

EH.-Fil. 799

65

ARP

1977

FI. 70

EH.-Fil. XXXX

66

ARP

1977

FE. 42

EH.-Fil. WWWW

67

ARP

1977

FE. 42

EH.-Fil. DDDD

68

ARP

1978

?

EH.-Fil. 759

69

ARP

1979

?

EH.-Fil. 754

70

ARP

1979

?

EH.-Fil. 765

71

ARP

1979

?

EH.-Fil. 766

BR AN RIO EH.0.FIL. FIT.70 ANO 1979

72

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 804

73

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 708

74

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 744

75

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 745

76

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 746

77

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 474

78

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 750

79

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 752

80

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 757

BR AN RIO EH.0.FIL. FIT.61 ANO 1978

81

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 758

BR AN RIO EH.0.FIL. FIT.62 ANO 1978

82

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 760

83

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 761

84

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 762

85

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 763

86

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 767

87

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 768

88

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 778

89

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 792

90

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 800

91

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 801

92

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 802

93

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 803

94

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 804

95

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 805

96

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 806

97

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 807

BR AN RIO EH.0.FIL. FIT.111 ANO 1978

98

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 808

99

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 809

100

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 810

101

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 811

102

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 812

103

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 813

104

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 814

105

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. 815

106

ARP

1978/1979?

?

EH.-Fil. ZZZZ

Other flms and duplicates

1

DAguiar?

1968

EH.-Fil. 697

2

DAguiar?

1968

EH.-Fil. 698

3

DAguiar?

1968

EH.-Fil. 699

4

DAguiar?

1968

EH.-Fil. 700

5

DAguiar?

1968

EH.-Fil. 701

6

? not AERP

EH.-Fil. 915

Médici era?

7

? not AERP

EH.-Fil. 901

Médici era?

8

? not AERP

EH.-Fil. 889

Médici era?

9

ARP

1977

EH.-Fil. DDDD =WWWW

FE. 42

10

ARP

1978/79?

EH.-Fil. CCCC? = 809

11

?

EH.-Fil. 704

?

12

?

EH.-Fil. 705

?

13

?

EH.-Fil. 722

?

14

People's movement against infation

?

EH.-Fil. 740

State department ?

15

People's movement against infation

?

EH.-Fil. 741

State department ?

16

People's movement against infation

?

EH.-Fil. 793

State department ?

17

Brazilian National Bishops' Conference (CNBB)

?

EH.-Fil. 804

Fraternity Campaign

(p.123) (p.124) (p.125)