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Building the PastPrehistoric Wooden Post Architecture in the Ohio Valley-Great Lakes$

Brian G. Redmond and Robert A. Genheimer

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780813060408

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: September 2015

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813060408.001.0001

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(p.ix) Figures

(p.ix) Figures

Source:
Building the Past
Publisher:
University Press of Florida

  1. 1.1. Locations of selected sites with wooden-post architecture 4

  2. 2.1. Late Archaic sites with evidence for structures in Ohio region 11

  3. 2.2. Plan view of Site 33AD56 12

  4. 2.3. Late Archaic C-shaped structures in the Ohio region 15

  5. 2.4. Plan view of Yellowbush Creek Camp site (33MS29) with results of geophysical survey 16

  6. 2.5. Plan view of Late Archaic Mabel Hall site 17

  7. 2.6. Late Archaic ovoid structures in Ohio region 20

  8. 2.7. Distribution of postmold features and structures at Late Archaic Grayson site 21

  9. 2.8. Late Archaic square structures in Ohio region 23

  10. 2.9. Late Archaic “phantom” structures in Ohio region 24

  11. 2.10. Interior floor space for Late Archaic structures in Ohio region 26

  12. 3.1. Location of Davidson site in southwestern Ontario 30

  13. 3.2. Map of Davidson site showing excavated areas and artifacts 32

  14. 3.3. Plan map of large pithouse at Davidson site 34

  15. 3.4. North–south profile of large pithouse, Davidson site 35

  16. 3.5. North–south profile through house deposits 36

  17. 3.6. Linear house partition remnant from pithouse Feature 5 37

  18. 3.7. Small ovate preform in deposits in pithouse Feature 5 39

  19. 3.8. Profile view of Feature 32 wall trench 42

  20. 3.9. Plan map of wall trench house, Davidson site 44

  21. 3.10. Plan map of pithouse Feature 3/9, Davidson site 45

  22. 3.11. West–east profile of pit area of Feature 3/9 48 (p.x)

  23. 3.12. Close-up view of north–south and east–west profiles in pit in Feature 3/9 49

  24. 3.13. Plan view of preserved portion of wall trench house, Rock Hearth site 52

  25. 4.1. Location of sites in Hocking Valley 64

  26. 4.2. Structure 1 and surrounding area, Allen site 66

  27. 4.3. Reconstruction drawing of Structure 1, Patton site 67

  28. 4.4. Daub remnants of Structure 1, Patton site 68

  29. 4.5. Floor of Structure 1, Patton site 69

  30. 4.6. Feature 4, Patton site 69

  31. 4.7. Patton 3 site 71

  32. 4.8. Structure 2, Patton 3 site 72

  33. 4.9. Structures 5 and 6, Patton 3 site 73

  34. 4.10. Structure 6, Patton 3 site 74

  35. 5.1. Map of Ohio Hopewell homeland 86

  36. 5.2. Ground plan of Moorehead Mound No. 38 88

  37. 5.3. Graveside shrine in Seip-Conjoined Big House 89

  38. 5.4. Floor plan of structure covered by Tremper Mound 90

  39. 5.5. Large enclosures sharing related ground plans 96

  40. 5.6. Estimated profile of Hopewell site Mound 25 97

  41. 5.7. Estimated floor plan of Hopewell site Mound 25 99

  42. 5.8. Reconstructed post pattern of Edwin Harness Big House 101

  43. 5.9. Artist’s reconstruction of Edwin Harness Big House 101

  44. 5.10. Estimated floor plan of Seip-Pricer Big House 107

  45. 5.11. Artist’s reconstruction of activities at Seip-Pricer Big House 109

  46. 5.12. Artist’s reconstruction of ceremonial cache in Seip-Pricer Big House 110

  47. 5.13. Estimated floor plan of Seip-Conjoined Big House 112

  48. 5.14. Photograph of Burials 93, 95, and 96 at Seip-Pricer Big House 116

  49. 6.1. Fort Ancient Earthwork, showing Moorehead Circle 127

  50. 6.2. Moorehead Circle, with excavation units and major features 129

  51. 6.3. Moorehead Circle Central Feature 130 (p.xi)

  52. 6.4. Deep posthole from structure adjacent to Central Feature 131

  53. 6.5. Stratified floors of structure adjacent to Central Feature 131

  54. 6.6. Entranceway, with superimposed stone pavements 132

  55. 6.7. Posthole west of Central Feature showing three fills 135

  56. 6.8. Posts from middle post ring on northeast perimeter of Moorehead Circle 137

  57. 6.9. Rock-filled posthole, Feature 135 138

  58. 6.10. Rock-filled stake hole and posthole, Features 278 and 288 139

  59. 6.11. Capstone over Feature 287 141

  60. 6.12. Feature 174 post pit, during excavation 141

  61. 6.13. Gravel cover visible on profile above stones of Entranceway 144

  62. 7.1. Location of Brown’s Bottom 1 and Lady’s Run in Scioto Valley 147

  63. 7.2. Plan view of Brown’s Bottom 1 structure and adjacent features 149

  64. 7.3. Plan view of Lady’s Run Structure 1 and adjacent features 155

  65. 7.4. Plan view of Lady’s Run Structure 2 and adjacent features 159

  66. 7.5. Cutaway view of upper roof of structure model 164

  67. 7.6. Cutaway view of lower roof and walls of structure model 164

  68. 7.7. Drawing of Brown’s Bottom 1 based on scale model of alternative design 176

  69. 8.1. Locations of selected sites mentioned in text 189

  70. 8.2. Map showing results of magnetic gradient survey 191

  71. 8.3. Excavation plan of Heckelman site 192

  72. 8.4. Plan of CMNH excavations 195

  73. 8.5. Plan of Structure 2 showing associated features and areas of disturbance 197

  74. 8.6. Selected artifacts from Structure 2 and keyhole structure 198

  75. 8.7. Cross-section profiles of selected pit features, Structure 2 199

  76. 8.8. Field photograph of post-pit Feature 11-39 after excavation 199

  77. 8.9. Field photograph of keyhole structure 204

  78. 8.10. Plan of keyhole structure showing cross-section lines 204

  79. 8.11. Cross-section profile drawings of keyhole structure basin and entryway ramp 205 (p.xii)

  80. 8.12. Plan of Structure 3 and nearby features 207

  81. 8.13. Partially reconstructed rim of Mixter Tool-impressed vessel 209

  82. 8.14. Chart comparing postmold metrics of Structures 2 and 3 211

  83. 8.15. Plan of rectangular postmold structures and keyhole structures at White Fort site 214

  84. 9.1. Generalized view of spread of wall trench construction 220

  85. 9.2. Fort Ancient sites with wall trench architecture 222

  86. 9.3. Photograph of wall trench houses at Schomaker site 225

  87. 9.4. Map of wall trench house at Hahn site 228

  88. 9.5. Plan view of wall trench house at Turpin–Peach Orchard site 229

  89. 9.6. Wall trench house at Madisonville site 232

  90. 9.7. Map of hybrid wall trench house at Horseshoe Johnson site 234

  91. 9.8. Map of hybrid wall trench house at SunWatch site 235

  92. 9.9. Photograph of corner of wall trench structure at Guard site 237

  93. 9.10. Photograph of wall trench segment in roadcut at State Line site 239

  94. 9.11. Example of Metz’s wall trench notes and sketches from Turpin-Homestead site 242

  95. 9.12. Plot of radiocarbon age by interior floor space 246

  96. 9.13. Plot of radiocarbon age by mean posthole diameter 248

  97. 10.1. Distribution of Castor and Oliver phase sites in central Indiana 254

  98. 10.2. Ceramics from Castor Farm site 260

  99. 10.3. Communal structures detected in geophysical data, Castor Farm site 265

  100. 10.4. Photograph of Structure 1 266

  101. 10.5. Plan of Structure 1 266

  102. 10.6. Photograph of burned timbers, Structure 1 272

  103. 10.7. Photograph of west half of Structure 1 in plan view 273

  104. 10.8. Plan maps of Structure 1 showing interior partitions and sampling cross-section lines 274

  105. 10.9. Cross section of inner screen wall, Structure 1 275

  106. 10.10. Cross section of double wall at possible entry to Structure 1 276 (p.xiii)

  107. 10.11. Cross section of double wall along west wall of Structure 1 276

  108. 10.12. Cross section of double wall along north wall of Structure 1 277

  109. 10.13. Profile of Structure 1 basin 278

  110. 10.14. Plan of Structure 3 280

  111. 10.15. Profile of Structure 3 284

  112. 10.16. Plan of other structure types 287

  113. 10.17. Structures detected in magnetometry data 289

  114. 10.18. Plan of stockade walls 290

  115. 10.19. Plan view of probable stockade wall in Trench 4 291

  116. 11.1. Location of sites discussed in text 296

  117. 11.2. Plan of public structures at Cleek-McCabe, Fox Farm, and Sweet Lick Knob 299

  118. 11.3. Plan of public structures at Cleek-McCabe 301

  119. 11.4. Plan of public structure at Fox Farm 305

  120. 11.5. Overhead photograph of Fox Farm’s public structure 307

  121. 11.6. Plan of public structure at Sweet Lick Knob 309

  122. 12.1. Reconstructed houses at SunWatch Indian Village/Archaeological Park 323

  123. 12.2. Postmolds and subsurface architectural remains at SunWatch 324

  124. 12.3. Classes of roof types 330

  125. 12.4. Defining posts and stakes by method of construction 333

  126. 12.5. Posts and stakes 334

  127. 12.6. Profile of Postmold 2/12 from Wegerzyn site 335

  128. 12.7. Proposed postmold terminology 335

  129. 12.8. Profile view of post ramps of central post at SunWatch 337

  130. 12.9. Plan view of two post ramps of central post at SunWatch 337

  131. 12.10. Profile of Stakemold 14/12 from Wegerzyn site 339

  132. 12.11. Exposed mold feature in profile showing slanted orientation 341

  133. 12.12. Excavated structure at SunWatch illustrating results of scooped postmold excavation method 346

  134. 12.13. Cutting box section to remove soil matrix around half of mold feature 347

  135. 12.14. Mold feature with matrix removed, prior to bisection 347 (p.xiv)

  136. 12.15. Best practice method for box sections of multiple adjacent mold features 348

  137. 12.16. Two hypothetical rafters and placement of support posts under center of gravity 351

  138. 12.17. Model of reversed-assembly roof showing principal components 354

  139. 12.18. Willow bark used to lash small elements to a post 355

  140. 12.19. Forked branch used to support a horizontal element 355

  141. 12.20. Stub mortise and tenon 357

  142. 12.21. Mortise-and-tenon joint with post and horizontal beams 357

  143. 12.22. Post longevity experiment doubling as village stockade at SunWatch 362

  144. 12.23. Burned reconstructed house at SunWatch, circa 1982 363