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In Defiance of BoundariesAnarchism in Latin American History$
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Geoffroy de Laforcade and Kirwin Shaffer

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780813061108

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813061108.001.0001

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Panama Red

Panama Red

Anarchist Politics and Transnational Networks in the Panama Canal Zone, 1904–1913

Chapter:
(p.48) 2 Panama Red
Source:
In Defiance of Boundaries
Author(s):

Kirwin Shaffer

Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:10.5744/florida/9780813061108.003.0002

The independence of Panama from Colombia and the construction of the Panama Canal created countless transatlantic movements of goods, peoples, information, and ideas, including a vibrant anarchist movement in the early twentieth century. Cuba played an important role in this network, as did Spain, and, in its efforts to contain working-class radicalism in the zone that it controlled, the United States. This chapter examines the influence not just of anarcho-communists, syndicalists, and individualists, but also of “anarcho-naturists” who advocated vegetarianism, alternative lifestyles, and resistance to urban capitalist development. Racial ideology, anti-clericalism, and the incidence of the Mexican Revolution are some of the topics covered, as well as the role of individual leaders in dividing and undermining the movement on the eve of the First World War.

Keywords:   Panama Canal Zone, Cuba, Immigration, Anarchism, Transnationalism, Race, Anti-clericalism, Anarcho-naturism, Anarcho-individualism

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