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Eating In the Side RoomFood, Archaeology, and African American Identity$

Mark S. Warner

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780813061115

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813061115.001.0001

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(p.137) Appendix B

(p.137) Appendix B

Summary of Comparative Faunal Data

Source:
Eating In the Side Room
Author(s):

Mark S. Warner

Publisher:
University Press of Florida

Rather than flooding the body of this volume with descriptive text, I will present details of the comparative archaeological assemblages in the paragraphs that follow. Each site is briefly described and the cumulative data tables presented based on what was available in the technical reports for each of these excavations. I want to emphasize that I did not re-analyze any of these faunal assemblages, and the results reflect the accuracy and detail of the original reports. The only addition I made was to calculate the percentages for each line in the data tables.

Annapolis Assemblages—African American–Occupied Sites

Courthouse Site, 18AP63, The Franklin St. Neighborhood

The Courthouse site was a triangle-shaped city block in the historic district of Annapolis. The property was located just off Church Circle and is bordered by Franklin, Cathedral, and South Streets. Excavations were conducted on the property while it was in use as an asphalt-covered parking lot. Prior to its use as a parking lot the property had been a long-standing residential neighborhood, consisting primarily of African American owners and renters dating back to at least the second half of the nineteenth century. Excavations were conducted at the Courthouse site during the summer of 1990, spring and summer of 1994, and in the summer of 2001. The initial excavation was a Phase II testing project conducted during the summer of 1990 and was directed by myself and Benjamin Ford (Warner and Mullins 1993). The 1994 excavations were directed by Eric Larsen and Elizabeth Aiello (Aiello and Seidel 1995), and the 2001 excavations were directed again by Eric Larsen (Larsen 2002). The African American component consisted of two discrete assemblages (discussed below as “Courthouse Privies”) and three small yard scatter assemblages that are combined for analytical purposes.

(p.138) The Courthouse Site Yard Scatter Assemblages

Ceramic analysis of the Phase III excavations of the Courthouse assemblage identified two excavation areas that were associated with the late nineteenth- to early twentieth-century occupation of the property. The remains were recovered from several excavation units representing refuse from multiple households. All of the remains were deposited during a period when nearly the entire neighborhood was occupied by African Americans. The Phase II testing also recovered an assemblage of remains associated with multiple African American households. Individually each of these assemblages was quite small. A total of 642 bones were recovered from the Phase II testing while the two Phase III assemblages had counts of just 452 and 291 elements. Individually, each assemblage would be too small to say much about household food consumption but when aggregated they represent a somewhat more robust assemblage. Bone counts from the three assemblages are presented individually and aggregated in table B.1.

Courthouse Privies

Two privies associated with African Americans were excavated during 1994 (Feature 79) and 2001 (Feature 103) (tables B.2 and B.3). The privy excavated in 1994 was wood-lined and was associated with the late nineteenth to early twentieth century of occupation of Bellis Court. Bellis Court was a small group of six frame houses located on the interior of the block. The buildings were owned by a white landlord and all were occupied by African American renters. The 2001 privy was not fully excavated due to a combination of time constraints and erosion concerns (Larsen 2002:93). Approximately 4½ feet of soil matrix was removed from the privy before excavations were terminated. The privy had a T.P.Q. of 1870 and was associated with Charlotte Barord, an African American woman and her two daughters.

Gotts Court, 18AP52

Gotts Court was located on the interior of the city block off of Church Circle bordered by Northwest, Calvert, and West streets. During excavations, the property was an asphalt-covered parking lot. Gotts Court had been a series of twenty-five connected frame dwellings located on the interior of the block, similar to Bellis Court. The buildings were originally (p.139)

Table B.1. Courthouse site—late nineteenth/early twentieth-century yard scatter

Species

Area 5 NISP

Area 4 NISP

A4+A5 NISP

Phase II NISP

Phase II&III NISP

Percent

Pig

22

41

63

27

90

6.5

Cow

11

-

11

5

16

1.1

Unid. lg mam

6

4

10

14

24

1.7

Unid. med to lg mam.

15

8

23

-

23

1.7

Sheep/Goat

3

7

10

2

12

1.0

Unid. med mam.

146

131

277

165

442

31.8

Unid. sm to med mam.

2

7

9

-

9

1.0

Beaver

1

-

1

-

1

0.0

Cat

-

-

-

8

8

1.0

Dog

1

-

1

1

2

0.0

Rabbit

-

-

-

1

1

0.0

Muskrat

-

-

-

2

2

0.0

Rat

1

-

1

4

5

0.0

Unid. sm mam.

1

1

2

36

38

2.7

Unid. mam.

147

26

173

122

295

21.2

Chicken

1

13

14

14

28

2.0

Pheasant

1

-

1

-

1

0.0

Turkey

4

6

10

1

11

1.0

Duck

3

-

3

-

3

0.0

Unid. Bird

64

33

97

117

214

15.4

Turtle

2

-

2

-

2

0.0

Oyster Shell

2

-

2

-

2

0.0

Unid Fish

-

1

1

7

8

1.0

Unidentifiable

18

13

38

120

151

10.9

TOTAL

451 bones

291 bones

742 bones

646 bones

1,388 bones

100.0

(p.140)

Table B.2. Courthouse site, wood-lined privy, Feature 79, 1994 excavation

Species

NISP

Percent

MNI

Percent

Pig

100

28.2

5

-

Cow

8

2.3

1

-

Unid. lg mam.

11

3.1

-

-

Unid. med to lg mam.

17

4.8

-

-

Sheep

1

0.3

1

-

Sheep/Goat

3

0.8

-

-

Unid. med mam.

81

22.2

-

-

Cat

2

0.6

1

-

Unid. sm mam.

5

1.4

-

-

Unid. mam.

86

24.2

-

-

Turkey

4

1.1

1

-

Duck

8

2.3

3

-

Unid. bird

16

4.5

-

-

Unidentifiable

13

3.7

-

-

TOTAL

355

12 MNI

-

Source: Aiello and Seidel 1995:228.

Table B.3. Courthouse privy, Feature 103, 2001 excavation

Species

Common name

NISP

Percent

Sus scrofa

pig

126

4.2

Bos taurus

cow

70

2.3

Ovis aries

sheep

3

0.1

Ovis/Capra

sheep/goat

43

1.4

Procyon lotor

raccoon

2

0.1

Ondatra zibethica

muskrat

2

0.1

Canis familiaris

dog

26

0.9

Canid

dogs, wolves, foxes

5

0.2

Cricetidae

New World rodents

1

0.0

Rattus sp.

Old World rodents

11

0.4

Sylvilagus floridanus

cottontail rabbit

1

0.0

Lg mammal

-

197

6.6

Med mammal

-

561

18.7

Sm mammal

-

2

0.1

Mammal

-

37

1.2

MAMMALIAN TOTALS

-

1,087

36.3

Gallus gallus

chicken

88

2.9

Meleagris gallopavo

turkey

22

0.7

Passeriformes

songbirds

1

0.0

Columba livia

rock dove

18

0.6

Anatidae cf. (Mergus sp.)

?merganser

1

0.0

Anatidae

ducks, geese, and swans

1

0.0

Branta canadensis

Canada goose

3

0.1

Mergaceryle alcyon

belted kingfisher

2

0.1

Bird

-

126

4.2

Large bird

-

3

0.1

AVIAN TOTALS

265

8.7

Terapene carolina

box turtle

6

0.2

Perca flavescens

yellow perch

1

0.0

Centrarchidae

sunfishes and basses

7

0.2

Lepomis sp.

sunfishes

48

1.6

Ictaluridae

freshwater catfish

21

0.7

Ameiurus sp. (cf. catus)

poss. white catfish

1

0.0

Ameiurus sp.

bullhead catfishes

11

0.4

Morone cf. saxatilis

poss. striped seabass

1

0.0

Fish

-

555

18.5

Small fish

-

5

0.2

FISH TOTALS

650

21.7

Unidentifiable

-

994

33.1

FEATURE TOTAL

3,002

100.0

(p.141) constructed between 1906 and 1908. They were owned by whites and occupied exclusively by African American renters from the time of their construction until they were demolished so the parking lot could be built in the 1950s. Very limited testing of the property was conducted by Archaeology in Annapolis during the summer of 1989 (Warner 1992). Phase III excavations of the property were conducted by R. Christopher Goodwin and Associates during the fall and winter of 1991–1992 (Goodwin and Assoc. 1993). The faunal remains presented here are a simple summary of the yard scatter remains from the two excavations (table B.4). (p.142)

Table B.4. Gotts Court phase II & III excavations

Ph. II

Ph. III

Phase II&III

Species

NISP

NISP

MNI

NISP

Percent

Pig

12

89

16

101

13.5

Cow

3

65

4

68

9.1

Unid. lg mam.

57

16

-

73

9.7

Unid. med to lg mam.

-

21

-

21

2.8

Sheep

2

4

-

6

0.8

Sheep/Goat

11

16

5

27

3.6

Unid. med mam.

115

90

-

205

27.3

Cat

-

1

1

1

0.1

Dog

1

-

-

1

0.1

Rat

-

1

1

1

0.1

Unid. rodent

3

2

1

5

0.7

Muskrat

5

-

-

5

0.7

Rabbit

-

1

1

1

0.1

Unid. sm to med mam.

-

2

-

2

0.3

Unid. sm mam.

2

-

-

2

0.3

Unid. mammal

14

95

-

109

14.5

Turkey

1

11

4

12

1.6

Chicken

-

9

2

9

1.2

Unid. bird

43

28

-

71

9.5

Unid. fish

8

1

-

9

1.2

Unidentifiable

-

21

-

21

2.8

TOTAL

277 bones

473 bones

35 MNI

750 bones

100.0

Source: Warner 1992:appendix 3; Goodwin and Assoc. 1993:table 5.

Note: Phase II MNIs were not calculated because of small sample size.

(p.143) Annapolis Assemblages—White-Occupied Sites

Courthouse Site, Possible William Bellis Household

Archaeology in Annapolis conducted extensive excavations at the former location of the Franklin Street neighborhood on what has been called the Courthouse site. In addition to the assemblages discussed above that were associated with African Americans, two additional excavated assemblages were attributed to white residents of the block. One was identified in the 1994 excavation and one in the 2001 excavation. The 1994 excavation recovered a substantial assemblage of faunal remains from a yard scatter associated with William Bellis’s occupation of the property. William Bellis

Table B.5. Possible Bellis household yard scatter

Species

NISP

Percent

MNI

Percent

Pig

60

6.4

4

17.4

Cow

34

3.7

3

13.0

Unid. lg mam.

17

1.8

-

0.0

Unid. med to lg mam.

12

1.3

-

0.0

Sheep

3

0.3

1

4.3

Sheep/Goat

11

1.2

-

0.0

Unid. med mam.

261

28.0

-

0.0

Unid. sm to med mam.

23

2.5

-

0.0

Gray Squirrel

7

0.8

2

8.7

Muskrat

2

0.2

1

4.3

Rat

1

0.1

1

4.3

Unid. rodent

1

0.1

-

0.0

Unid. sm mam.

8

0.9

-

0.0

Unid. mammal

145

15.6

-

0.0

Chicken

8

0.9

2

8.7

Turkey

5

0.5

2

8.7

Canada Goose

1

0.1

1

4.3

Duck

8

0.9

2

8.7

Unid. Bird

89

9.6

-

0.0

Turtle

2

0.2

1

4.3

Catfish

12

1.3

3

13.0

Unid. fish

148

15.9

-

0.0

Unidentifiable

73

7.8

-

0.0

TOTAL

931 Bones

100.1

23 MNI

99.7

Source: Aiello and Seidel 1995:222.

(p.144) ran a tailoring business and engaged in a few small real estate ventures in the city during the second half of the nineteenth century (Aiello and Seidel 1995:72). The site report notes that the assemblage was somewhat disturbed and the Bellis association is a bit tentative. The materials date to the third quarter of the nineteenth century occupation, circa 1850s–1870s (table B.5).

The second assemblage associated with a white household was a privy. The privy was partially excavated during the 2001 excavation. A total of four feet of soil matrix was removed from the privy before excavation was terminated for safety reasons (Larsen 2002:77). The assemblage T.P.Q. was

Table B.6. Courthouse privy, Feature 118, 2001 excavation

Species

Common name

NISP

Percent

Bos taurus

cow

6

1.1

Ovis/Capra

sheep/goat

6

1.1

Sus scrofa

pig

26

4.8

Lg mam.

-

9

1.6

Med mam.

-

105

19.2

Sm mam.

-

1

0.2

Mammal

-

63

11.5

MAMMAL TOTALS

-

216

39.5

Anatidae

ducks/geese/swans

1

0.2

Meleagris gallopavo

turkey

1

0.2

Unid. birds

-

10

1.8

AVIAN TOTALS

-

12

2.2

Chelydra serpentina

snapping turtle

2

0.4

Perciformes

perches

2

0.4

Perca flavescens

yellow perch

1

0.2

Exox sp.

pike

1

0.2

Unid. fish

-

259

47.3

FISH TOTALS

-

263

48.1

Unid.

-

54

9.9

FEATURE TOTAL

-

547

100.1

Source: Larsen 2002:84.

(p.145) 1889, a period when the house associated with the privy was occupied by a white watchmaker and his family (Larsen:84–85) (table B.6).

Main Street Site, 18AP44

The Main Street site was a single-family household located at 193 Main Street in Annapolis. The property had been continuously occupied by white Annapolitans from the early eighteenth century until 1929 when the land was paved and turned into a parking lot. Excavations were conducted on the property during the fall of 1985 and summer of 1986. Excavations were directed by Paul Shackel. The faunal assemblage was recovered from a privy dating to 1889. During this time the property was owned and occupied by the physician Dr. Frank Thompson and his household (Mullins 1989, Shackel 1986) (table B.7).

Table B.7. Main Street privy, Feature 12

Species

NISP

Percent

MNI

Percent

Pig

14

3.9

2

5.0

Cow

15

4.2

2

5.0

Unid. lg mam.

6

1.7

-

0.0

Sheep

6

1.7

1

2.5

Sheep/Goat

8

2.2

1

2.5

Human

3

0.8

2

5.0

Unid. med mam.

16

4.5

-

0.0

Cat

1

0.3

1

2.5

Rat

9

2.5

2

5.0

Chicken

39

10.9

11

27.5

Turkey

16

4.5

4

10.0

Pigeon

60

16.7

8

20.0

Pheasant

19

5.3

3

7.5

Unid. reptile

7

2.0

-

0.0

Unid. bird

19

5.3

-

0.0

Turtle

1

0.3

1

2.5

Crab

3

0.8

2

5.0

Unid. fish

29

8.1

-

0.0

Unid.

88

24.5

-

0.0

TOTAL

359 Bones

100.2

40 MNI

100.0

Source: Lev-Tov, 1987.

(p.146) Reynolds Tavern Privy, 18AP12

The final comparative assemblage from Annapolis comes from the Reynolds Tavern excavations. Reynolds Tavern was located on Church Circle in Annapolis. As the site name suggests the property was originally used as a tavern during the eighteenth century. Excavations on the site were conducted by Richard Dent and Anne Yentsch. The analysis of the faunal remains was conducted by Elizabeth Reitz (Reitz 1989). The assemblage used here was recovered from a privy filled sometime in the mid-nineteenth century, a period when the property was a bank, though the considerable variety of recovered food remains indicates that there was likely some household refuse being deposited in the assemblage (table B.8).

Table B.8. Reynolds Tavern privy

Species

NISP

Percent

MNI

Percent

Pig

19

1.5

2

3.7

Cow

19

1.5

1

1.9

Unid. lg mam.

90

6.9

-

0.0

Sheep/Goat

9

0.7

3

5.6

Cat

83

6.3

4

7.4

Dog

65

5.0

1

1.9

Rabbit

1

0.1

1

1.9

Squirrel

2

0.2

1

1.9

Rat

166

12.7

18

33.3

Unid. sm mam.

74

5.7

-

0.0

Duck

1

0.1

1

1.9

Chicken

141

10.8

12

22.2

Turkey

9

0.7

2

3.7

Galliformes

40

3.1

-

0.0

Unid. bird

229

17.4

-

0.0

Turtle

1

0.1

1

1.9

Herring family

3

0.2

1

1.9

Temperate Bass (Morone sp.)

21

1.6

4

7.4

Porgy family (Sparidae)

1

0.1

1

1.9

Sheepshead

1

0.1

1

1.9

Unid. fish

8

0.6

-

0.0

Artiodactyl

28

2.1

-

0.0

Unid. mammal

296

22.6

-

0.0

TOTAL

1,307

100.1

54 MNI

100.4

Source: Reitz 1989.

(p.147) Regional Assemblages: African American–Occupied Sites

Howard Road Historic District, Washington, D.C.

The faunal remains from the Howard Road Historic District excavations represent the cumulative yard scatter assemblages from five lots (Lots 1, 2, 9, 15, 16). The area was known as the Berry’s Farm settlement and was created by the Freedmens’s Bureau in 1867, creating an African American community that continued until well into the twentieth century (The Cultural Resources Group 1985). Excavations were conducted by The Cultural Resources Group of Louis Berger & Associates. The archaeological data presented represent a broad time frame from ca. 1867 until the 1980s. Four of the lot excavations had bracketing dates that extend from the 1860s until the present. A single lot assemblage dated from ca. 1900–1980, this was also the lot that contained the smallest number of faunal remains (n=118). Ideally, the assemblages would be somewhat more closely dated. What is presented is the most detailed accounting of the data that could be gathered from the report. For comparative purposes the faunal material recovered from all four lots is combined and presented as a single table (table B.9).

Table B.9. Howard Road, lots 1, 2, 9, 15, 16

Species

NISP

Percent

Pig

340

7.9

Cow

20

0.5

Sheep

1

0.0

Rabbit

2

0.1

Squirrel

10

0.2

Unid. rodent

44

1.0

Unid. sm mammal

63

1.5

Unid. med mammal

656

13.1

Unid. lg mammal

118

2.7

Chicken

72

1.7

Turkey

3

0.1

Pigeon

8

0.2

Unid. bird

269

6.2

Unid. fish

362

8.4

Unid.

2,349

54.4

TOTAL

4,317

100.0

(p.148) 108 Cannon Street, Chestertown, Maryland

The excavation conducted at the 108 Cannon Street property in Chestertown, Maryland, was a brief salvage operation conducted in the fall of 1988 by the University of Delaware, Center for Archaeological Research. The faunal remains were recovered from a disturbed context. The existing building at 108 Cannon St. was being renovated and as part of the renovation the soil below the floorboards was removed by the contractor. Archaeologists were invited onto the site after the soils had been removed.

The property itself had a long history of occupation by African Americans. The property was first occupied in 1810. In 1832 Thomas Cuff, a prominent African American in Chestertown, purchased the house and lot. Cuff continued to live at 108 Cannon St. until his death in 1858. After his death his descendants continued to live there until 1884. Despite the obvious disturbance of the archaeological remains by the contemporary renovations, the archaeologists concluded that the faunal remains were likely associated with the African American occupation of the property. They comment that the food remains, “may not necessarily relate specifically to Thomas Cuff’s occupation of the site, but are almost certainly associated with a black occupation, perhaps from later in the 19th century” (Catts and McCall 1991:177) (table B.10).

Table B.10. 108 Cannon Street, Chestertown, Maryland

Species

NISP

Percent

MNI

Percent

Pig

167

22.4

8

19.1

Cow

99

13.3

4

9.5

Sheep

32

4.3

3

7.1

Deer

3

0.4

1

2.4

Cat

3

0.4

1

2.4

Muskrat

12

1.6

3

7.1

Unid. bird

144

19.3

11

26.2

Turtle

17

2.3

3

7.1

Blue Crab

2

0.3

2

4.8

Unid. fish

7

0.9

5

11.9

Unid.

260

34.8

1

2.4

TOTAL

746 bones

100.0

42 MNI

100.0

Source: Catts and McCall 1991:171.

(p.149) Quander Alley, Washington, D.C. (Navy Yard Annex)

The materials recovered from the Naval Yard excavations incorporated remains from a late nineteenth to early twentieth-century (ca. 1880–1940) city block in southeast Washington, D.C. African Americans resided on the interior of the city block, where dwellings were situated in alleyways. Residences occupied by whites were situated on the block’s perimeter, facing onto the city streets. This residency pattern has consistently been identified both in Annapolis (e.g., Gotts Court and Bellis Court) and elsewhere in the United States (cf. Borchert 1980). The materials used for analysis were recovered from a series of sheet refuse deposits in the backyards of several house lots (Cheek et al. 1983, Cheek and Friedlander 1990) (table B.11).

Table B.11. Quander Alley, Washington, D.C.

Species

NISP

Percent

Pig

40

4.9

Cow

4

0.5

Sheep

11

1.4

Deer

3

0.4

Cat

3

0.4

Rabbit

1

0.1

Opossum

2

0.3

Rodent

39

4.8

Unid. sm mam.

35

4.3

Unid. med mam.

79

9.7

Unid. lg mam.

2

0.3

Unid. mam.

182

22.4

Unid. bird

40

4.9

Chicken

3

0.4

Turkey

6

0.7

Chuck-will-widow

1

0.1

Sparrow hawk

1

0.1

Robin

2

0.3

Unid. fish

351

43.1

Snail

9

1.1

TOTAL

814 Bones

100.2

Source: Cheek et al. 1983:131.

Note: Total does not include clam and oyster fragments recovered from flotation.

(p.150) Burgundy Alley Privy, Baltimore, Maryland

The faunal remains that are included from the Camden Yards excavations were recovered from a privy that dated to the late nineteenth to early twentieth century. The materials were recovered in salvage excavations

Table B.12. Burgundy Alley privy, Baltimore, Maryland

Species

NISP

Percent

MNI

Percent

Pig

594

26.9

27

22.9

Cow

385

17.4

12

10.2

Sheep

[37]a

-

-

0.0

Goat

[3]a

-

-

0.0

Sheep/Goat

140

6.3

10

8.5

Cat

1

0.0

1

0.9

Rabbit

21

1.0

3

2.5

Norway Rat

[3]b

-

-

0.0

Rat

38

1.7

6

5.1

Muskrat

25

1.1

6

5.1

Small mam.

20

0.9

-

0.0

Small/Medium mam.

2

0.1

-

0.0

Medium mam.

316

14.3

-

0.0

Medium/Large mam.

6

0.3

-

0.0

Large mam.

33

1.5

-

0.0

Unid. bird

85

3.9

1

0.9

Chicken

222

10.0

25

21.2

Turkey

43

2.0

5

4.2

Goose

14

0.6

3

2.5

Unid. duck

10

0.5

1

0.9

Small Wild Duck

1

0.0

1

0.9

Prob. Bullfrog

3

0.1

1

0.9

Small frog or toad

3

0.1

1

0.9

Unid. fish

217

9.8

12

10.2

Blue Crab

6

0.3

3

2.5

Eastern Oyster

19

0.9

-

0.0

Northern Quahog

4

0.2

-

0.0

Prob. Moon Snail

1

0.1

-

0.0

TOTAL

2,209

100.0

118

100.3

Source: Landon 1992.

Notes: (a.) Subset of sheep/goat category.

(b.) Subset of rat category.

(p.151) undertaken by R. Christopher Goodwin and Associates prior to the construction of the Camden Yards Baseball Park.

The original report does not firmly associate this privy with African Americans, despite its proximity to two black households within a predominately African American alley neighborhood. Apparently their hesitancy arose because of the discovery of two tobacco pipes that were stamped with “HOME RULE” along with an Irish harp. The presence of these artifacts is not surprising given the fact that many Irish immigrants lived on the periphery of the block (Goodwin and Associates 1992). Yet it is a mistake to equate their presence with the use or ownership of this particular privy by Irish immigrants. Objects do not always signal the ethnicity of their owners. During the excavation of the Maynard-Burgess site, for instance, a Franklin Pierce tobacco pipe was recovered. The pipe was political memorabilia and was produced for voters who were exclusively white. African Americans had no voting rights in the 1850s, and more significantly, Pierce was a supporter of slavery; however, the pipe was recovered in a context unequivocally associated with African Americans (Mullins 1999: 20–21) (table B.12).

Since this privy was closest to two African American residences (503 and 509) in the Burgundy Street alley when it was filled and that the majority of the interior of the block was occupied by African Americans at this time, I feel confident in ascribing this assemblage to an African American occupation. An informal conversation with a Goodwin and Associates staff member who participated in the excavation indicated that they believed that the most plausible affiliation was with the African American households, despite the equivocation in the original report.

Regional Assemblages: White-Occupied Sites

Civic Center Site, Washington, D.C.

The Civic Center Site in Washington, D.C., was a longstanding residential neighborhood primarily occupied by white families. From the early nineteenth century until the mid-twentieth century the neighborhood was predominantly residential. During the 1950s and 1960s an increasing number of businesses located themselves on the property. The materials recovered were part of a Phase III mitigation done by Soil Systems Inc. in February 1980 (table B.13). Faunal materials were recovered from several areas within the project area, but for the purposes of this study only one (p.152)

Table B.13. Civic Center site, Washington, D.C.

Species

NISP

Percent

MNI

Percent

Pig

2

0.1

1

1.9

Cow

19

0.7

2

3.8

Goat

2

0.1

1

1.9

Deer

4

0.1

2

3.8

Sheep/Goat

1

0.0

1

1.9

Artiodactyl

2

0.1

1

1.9

Cat

8

0.3

1

1.9

Weasel family

5

0.2

1

1.9

Rabbit

3

0.1

1

1.9

Squirrel

5

0.2

1

1.9

Rat

149

5.4

14

26.4

Mouse

3

0.1

1

1.9

Unid. rodent

1

0.0

1

1.9

Unid. mam.

1485

54.1

-

0.0

Duck

1

0.0

1

1.9

Anserformes

2

0.1

2

3.8

Chicken

104

3.8

11

20.8

Turkey

29

1.1

5

9.4

Crow

1

0.0

1

1.9

Columbidae

2

0.1

2

3.8

Unid. bird

686

25.0

-

0.0

Catfish

7

0.3

1

1.9

Perch

1

0.0

1

1.9

Clam

1

0.0

1

1.9

Unid. fish

66

2.4

-

0.0

Unid.

157

5.7

-

0.0

TOTAL

2,746 bones

100.0

53 MNI

100.3

Source: Garrow 1982:171.

of the assemblages was appropriate for comparison. This assemblage was recovered from the area identified as “Area B2” during excavations. The assemblage was recovered from a combination of mechanically excavated trenches and hand-excavated units placed in the backyard of one of the residences. Due to the extreme time constraints placed on the excavators the stratigraphic control was not particularly rigorous. The assemblage was characterized in the site report as representing a relatively long time frame from the second half of the nineteenth century through at least (p.153) the first quarter of the twentieth century. The residents of the area were broadly characterized as being middle class with several families being particularly noted as working in various building trades.

Boardinghouse Privy & Burleigh Yard Scatter, Harpers Ferry, West Virginia

Two assemblages appropriate for comparison were recovered from excavations that are part of a long-term archaeology research project in Harpers Ferry (West Virginia) National Park (Shackel 1996). The larger of the two assemblages was recovered from a privy associated with a boarding house located in downtown Harpers Ferry. The assemblage dates to an approximate ten-year period from the 1890s to about the turn of the twentieth century (Burk 1993a:15.1–15.12) (table B.14).

Table B.14. Boardinghouse privy, Harpers Ferry, West Virginia

Species

NISP

Percent

MNI

Percent

Bony fish

246

11.7

-

-

cf. Alewife

2

0.1

1

1.6

Atlantic Herring

6

0.3

3

4.8

Minnow and Carp

2

0.1

1

1.6

cf. Minnow and Carp

13

0.6

-

-

cf. Carp

27

1.3

1

1.6

Sucker

109

5.2

16

25.8

cf. Sucker

41

2.0

-

-

cf. Catfish

1

0.0

1

1.6

cf. Channel Catfish

1

0.0

1

1.6

cf. Haddock

1

0.0

1

1.6

Sunfish

1

0.0

1

1.6

Small-mouth Bass

4

0.2

1

1.6

Bird

444

21.2

-

-

Domestic Goose

1

0.0

1

1.6

Dabbling Duck

1

0.0

1

1.6

cf. Grouse, Partridge, or Pheasant

11

0.5

-

-

Chicken

169

8.1

13

21.0

cf. Chicken

5

0.2

-

-

Mammal

433

20.7

-

-

Large mam.

96

4.6

-

-

Medium mam.

77

3.7

-

-

Small mam.

139

6.6

-

-

Opossum

3

0.1

1

1.6

Eastern Cottontail

19

0.9

2

3.2

cf. Eastern Cottontail

2

0.1

-

-

Eastern Gray Squirrel

12

0.6

2

3.2

Old World Rat

16

0.8

3

4.8

Domestic Cat

21

1.0

3

4.8

cf. Domestic Cat

14

0.7

-

-

Sheep, Goat, or Deer

9

0.4

-

-

Domestic Pig

47

2.2

3

4.8

Domestic Cow

86

4.1

5

8.1

cf. Domestic Cow

33

1.6

-

-

Domestic Sheep or Goat

4

0.2

1

1.6

TOTAL

2,096

99.8

62

99.7

Source: Burk 1993a:15.5.

(p.154) The second assemblage is considerably smaller, containing only 443 elements. The materials presented represent the largest of three archaeological assemblages that were identified as being associated with the Burleigh family. The Burleighs were prominent residents of Harpers Ferry during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, operating a saloon and a hotel. The faunal remains used for comparison here were recovered from the yard scatter of the hotel and saloon. Investigators have noted that the remains were in a rather poor state of preservation due to their exposure to the elements. The assemblage dates to the 1880s (Bowen and Manning 1994:9.46–9.53) (table B.15).

Block 1191 Excavations; Houselot Privies, Features 5 and 6, Wilmington, Delaware

Two faunal assemblages were recovered in the excavations of Block 1191 in Wilmington, Delaware, that are suitable for comparison with the Maynard-Burgess faunal data. The first assemblage is a privy (Feature 5) that dated to the period between 1875 and 1910. The block associated with the privy was generally occupied by renters, so the assemblage couldn’t be (p.155)

Table B.15. Burleigh yard scatter, Harpers Ferry, West Virginia

Species

NISP

Percent

MNI

Percent

Class Osteichthyes

31

7.2

-

-

Alosa sapidissima (Am. Shad)

3

0.7

1

3.6

Clupea harengus (Atlantic Herring)

1

0.2

1

3.6

Family Ictaluridae (Catfish)

2

0.5

-

-

Ictalurus puncatus (Channel cat.)

1

0.2

1

3.6

Lepomis sp.

1

0.2

1

3.6

Morone sp.

1

0.2

1

3.6

Class Aves

34

7.9

-

-

Class Aves/Mammalia III

4

0.9

-

-

Rallus elegans (King Rail)

1

0.2

1

3.6

Goose Sp.

1

0.2

-

-

cf. Anser anser (Grayling goose)

1

0.2

1

3.6

Duck sp.

3

0.7

-

-

Anas platyrhynchos

1

0.2

1

3.6

Family Phasianidae

2

0.5

-

-

Meleagris gallopavo

12

2.8

3

10.7

cf. Meleagris gallopavo

2

0.5

-

-

Chicken

10

2.3

4

14.3

Class Mammalia

80

18.6

-

-

Class Mammalia I

23

5.3

-

-

Class Mammalia II

28

6.5

-

-

Class Mammalia III

20

4.7

-

-

Didelphis virginiana (Opossum)

3

0.7

1

3.6

S. floridanus (E. Cottontail)

6

1.4

1

3.6

Rattus sp.

17

4.0

5

17.9

cf. Rattus sp.

5

1.2

-

-

Rattus norvegicus

13

3.0

0

-

Rattus rattus

6

1.4

0

-

Order Artiodactyla I

9

2.1

-

-

Order Artiodactyla II

1

0.2

-

-

Sus scrofa (Pig)

35

8.1

4

14.3

cf. Sus scrofa

10

2.3

-

-

cf. Odocoileus virginianus (deer)

1

0.2

-

-

Bos taurus (Cow)

38

8.8

2

7.1

cf. Bos taurus

8

1.9

-

-

Bos taurus/Equus sp.

15

3.5

-

-

Subphylum Verterbrata

1

0.2

-

-

TOTAL

430

99.5

28

100.3

Source: Reitz and Manning 1994:9.48–9.49.

(p.156) conclusively associated with a particular household. However, excavators did conclude that the assemblage was representative of typical domestic refuse (Beidleman and Custer 1986:210–23) (table B.16). The second assemblage is specialized. It was a privy associated with a turn-of-the-century fish market (table B.17).

Table B.16. Privy, Feature 5, Block 1191, Wilmington, Delaware

Species

NISP

Percent

MNI

Percent

Snapper

93

2.9

1

0.9

Sucker

15

0.5

1

0.9

Mackerel

2

0.1

1

0.9

White Perch

1

0.0

1

0.9

Croaker

41

1.3

4

3.6

Catfish

77

2.4

20

18.0

Sea Trout

147

4.6

11

9.9

Herring

416

13.0

44

39.6

Eel

2

0.1

1

0.9

Sturgeon

5

0.2

1

0.9

Crab

34

1.1

6

5.4

Unid. fish

959

30.0

-

0.0

Unid. bird

159

5.0

-

0.0

Turkey

3

0.1

1

0.9

Chicken

88

2.8

3

2.7

Unid. mammal

498

15.6

-

0.0

Cat

19

0.6

3

2.7

Rabbit

1

0.0

1

0.9

Muskrat

7

0.2

2

1.8

Rat

33

1.0

4

3.6

Domestic Pig

86

2.7

1

0.9

Domestic Cow

223

7.0

3

2.7

Sheep

96

3.0

2

1.8

Unid. reptile

95

3.0

-

0.0

Unid.

95

3.0

-

0.0

TOTAL

3,195

100.2

111

99.9

Source: Beidleman et al. 1986:224.

(p.157)

Table B.17. Fish market privy, Block 1191, Wilmington, Delaware

Species

NISP

Percent

MNI

Percent

Snapper

211

0.8

2

0.2

Sheepshead

12

0.0

1

0.1

Pikes

61

0.2

11

0.8

Cod

118

0.4

17

1.3

Mackerel

25

0.1

5

0.4

Large-mouth Bass

391

1.4

39

2.9

Yellow Perch

1341

4.9

149

11.2

Spot

160

0.6

22

1.7

Scup

540

2.0

51

3.8

Sea Bass

1764

6.5

146

11.0

Blue

4821

17.7

38

2.9

Blue Flounder

354

1.3

35

2.6

White Flounder

1

0.0

1

0.1

Rock

472

1.7

49

3.7

Sucker

31

0.1

6

0.5

Shad

529

1.9

51

3.8

White Perch

994

3.6

172

12.9

Butter fish

4

0.0

1

0.1

Catfish

1024

3.8

149

11.2

Sea Trout

2297

8.4

173

13.0

Herrings

879

3.2

123

9.2

Eel

313

1.2

50

3.8

Sturgeon

151

0.6

2

0.2

Crab

85

0.3

8

0.7

Unid. fish

9068

33.2

-

0.0

Unid. bird

176

0.7

-

0.0

Turkey

2

0.0

1

0.1

Chicken

90

0.3

5

0.4

Unid. mam.

599

2.2

-

0.0

Cat

7

0.0

1

0.1

Rabbit

40

0.2

3

0.2

Muskrat

8

0.0

1

0.1

Rat

148

0.5

13

1.0

Mouse

1

0.0

1

0.1

Domestic Pig

26

0.1

2

0.2

Domestic Cow

62

0.2

2

0.2

Sheep

34

0.1

1

0.1

Unid. reptile

259

1.0

-

0.0

Unid. amphibian

1

0.0

-

0.0

Unid.

208

0.8

-

0.0

TOTAL

27,307

100.0

1,331

100.5

Source: Beidleman et al. 1986:317–318.

(p.158)