This chapter summarizes the discussions in the preceding chapters and presents some concluding thoughts from the author. This book has situated gender (analysis of black manhood and womanhood) more firmly within the discourse of race activism in the early Jim Crow South by providing insight into the flexible meanings of black manhood and the relationship between black male and female activists in that era. Gender, race, and the use of institutional space contributed to a dialogue within the black middle-class community that was simultaneously uplifting and divisive. As North Carolina's black men sought to reconcile themselves with the outer world of segregation through building institutions, they were equally attentive to the project of fashioning an African American manhood characterized by dignity and authority that would prove uplifting to their manhood and to the black community overall.
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