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Black Manhood and Community Building in North Carolina, 1900–1930$

Angela Hornsby-Gutting

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780813032931

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813032931.001.0001

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(p.237) Index

(p.237) Index

Source:
Black Manhood and Community Building in North Carolina, 1900–1930
Publisher:
University Press of Florida

Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations.

Abernathy, Friddie, 83
Accommodationist approach, 127, 133, 135, 139–42, 165
Addams, Jane, 59, 179n4
Adult world, black boys in, 54–55
Allen, O. J., 38–39
Allen, W. M., 11
American Negro (Thomas), 81
A.M.E. Zion church, 22
Amusement parks, 59
Askew, O. E., 73
Atkins, Simon G., 139
Avant, W. George, 121
Avery, John Moses, 167–68
Aycock, Charles B., 115, 137–38
Badham, Fannie, 120
Baiting youth to attend church, 68–69
Baker, C. H., 85
Baptist Educational and Missionary Convention, 24, 35
Baptist State Convention:
Board of Promotion, 48;
cooperation between genders in, 28–38, 43–45;
gender revolt in, 45–51;
hierarchy of, 170;
purpose of, 19;
rival, 30;
women in, 24, 28.
Baptist Sunday School Convention, 30, 56, 60–62, 67–68
Baptist Young People's Union, 71
Baxter, Maxi, 87
Bederman, Gail, 132
Better Homes campaign, 26–27
Bickett, Mrs. Thomas, 146
Bickett, Thomas:
orations of, 148, 159–60, 161;
Turner on, 218n87;
on white males, 165;
wife of, 146
“Black beast rapist” image, 8, 41, 168
Black church:
feminization of, 13, 36, 62;
identities of, 23;
men's involvement in, 42–43;
paternalism in, 31;
relevance of, to youth and in modern age, 63–64;
role of, 20, 29;
Social Gospel ideology and, 39;
YMI and, 86
Blackwell, Annie, 21
Blake, Sylvia V., 145
Bolles, J. W., 150
Boy problem:
“bad atmosphere” and, 52–60;
churchmen and, 60–64, 67–75;
cultural schools and, 76–81;
in nineteenth century, 62;
overview of, 93–94;
respectability and, 169;
YMCAs and, 64–67.
Boys, black pride among, 42–43
Boys’ conferences, 66–67
Boy Scouts, 66
Branch, J. H., 142, 143, 157
Brawley, Benjamin G., 74
Briggs, Ida, 131
Broughton, N. B., 63, 148
Brown, Calvin Scott:
Baptist women and, 33–36, 46;
Board of Promotion and, 48;
as Mason, 110, 124–25, 126, 127;
photo of, 97;
on rival convention, 30;
version of protection by, 47–48;
war savings work and, 216n72;
on women's work, 17, 45
Brown, Charlotte Hawkins, 79–81, 93, 145, 146–47, 153
Brown, Elsa Barkley, 4
Brown, H. B., 84
Brown, J. S., 49
Brown, Mrs. Rev. J. S., 55–56
Brown, Sue, 113, 114, 123–24
Bruce, John E., 118
(p.238) Bryant, R. Kelly, 111
Bullock, G. W., 42, 45–46, 97
Bullock, O. S., 45, 48
Bunn, Roberta, 24–26, 31, 32, 44
Bureau of Race Welfare, 56
Burrell, Mary, 48–49
Burroughs, Nannie Helen, 40
Business districts, black, 57–58
Campbell, R. F., 148
Carroll, Richard, 27
Cartwright, R. R., 49–50
Chavis, John, 151
Cheatham, Henry, 1, 111
Christianity:
masculinization of, 178n4;
muscular, 18, 39, 65, 185n74
Church. See Black church; specific churches
Church activism of black women:
cooperation of, with male counterparts, 23–27, 32–33, 43–45;
gendered dynamics and, 17, 18–19;
gendered interpretation of biblical texts and, 31–32;
revolt against treatment by churchmen, 45–51
Churchmen, and boy problem, 60–64, 67–75
Civilization:
Baptist men as in need of, 47;
black leadership and, 131–32;
trope of, 7
Class:
boy problem and, 53–54;
Emancipation Day ceremonies and, 158.
Cleland, W. C., 162–63, 164
Clinton, Charles, 42
Coleman, W. T., 63
The Colored American, 151
Colored Betterment League, 92
Colored Methodist Episcopal Church, 18–19
Colored Sunday School Convention, 62–63
Colored Women's League, 174n11
Commission on Interracial Cooperation, 153
Communal manhood, 7, 11–12
Community-building efforts, 92–93
Community space:
interrogating, 4–5;
negotiating, 82–94
Consumerism, and boys, 56–59, 72
Cooperation:
between genders, call for, within Baptist State Convention, 28–38, 43–45;
interracial, 132–33, 147–48, 153
The Correct Thing, to Do, to Say, to Wear, (C. H. Brown), 80–81
Cotten, Bruce, 152
Cradle Roll Department, 26, 75
Croom, A. S., 68
Crusaders Organization, 68
Cultural fields, 6
Cultural hegemonic trope of manhood, 7
Cultural schools, 76–81
Cultural terrain inhabited by black men, 15–16
Dabney, Thomas L., 151–52
Dancy, John Campbell, 2, 41–42, 53, 62, 176n35
Daniels, Josephus, 15, 148
Davenport, W. H., 65–66
Davis, Emma, 91
Defining manhood, churchmen and, 50–51
Delaney, Martin, 109
Dellinger, J. E., 104–5
Democratic Party, 1, 114–15
Denouncement of shortcomings of men, 145–47
DePriest, Oscar, 123
Dickson, Isaac, 84
Dickson, James Bryant, 92
Disfranchisement, 1–2, 7–8, 11. See also Suffrage
Dixon, E. H., 144
Documentation of black contributions to state, 150–51, 152, 166
Douglass, Frederick, 21, 134, 136
Dual gender consciousness, 50
Du Bois, W.E.B.:
on education, 4;
Jamestown exhibition and, 150;
NAACP and, 155;
secret societies and, 105–6;
suffrage and, 146;
“talented tenth” philosophy of, 88;
on women working outside home, 195n80;
at YMI, 82
Dudley, James B., 111, 139, 146, 156
Dusenbury, Charles, 12, 84, 95, 130
Dusenbury, Lula Martin, 12
Dusenbury, Paul, 12
Dyer Anti-Lynching bill, 124, 158
Earl, Hattie, 91
Eastern Star auxiliary. See Order of the Eastern Star
Eaton, J. Y., 117
Elites:
black, 9;
Emancipation Day ceremonies:
after WWI, 157–58, 163–64;
attendance and activities at, 144–45;
black national anthem at, 159;
class and, 158;
(p.239) description of, 131–32;
as discursive site, 164–65;
Hunter at, 141–42, 161–62;
interracial cooperation and, 132–33;
meaning of, 163;
origins of, 133–34;
in public spaces, 132, 170;
purpose of, 136;
racial uplift and, 165–66;
in Raleigh, 136;
role of women in, 145–47;
at YMI, 131
Emigration from state, 2, 160
Fairclough, Adam, 153
Farrakhan, Louis, 13
Federal employment, 154
Felski, Rita, 32
Feminist methodology, 4
Feminist theology, 205n21
Feminization of churches, 13, 36, 62
Financial support of Baptist women, 45
Fiscal resources, Brown and, 46, 47–48
Floyd, Silas, 55, 187n5
Floyd's Flowers (manual), 53–54
Fonvielle, William, 22–23, 88
Foote, Julia A. J., 112
Ford, Silas, 61, 62, 71
Forten, James, 108
Fortune, T. Thomas, 151
Fowler, Daisy, 91
Fowler, Fred, 91
Foy, Letitia L., 113
Franklin, John Hope, 106, 155
Frazier, E. Franklin, 29
Freedom celebrations. See Emancipation Day ceremonies
Freemasonry:
description of, 104;
function of, 115;
gender identity and, 105–8;
moral ethics and, 117–18;
politics and, 122–29;
race and, 109;
women in, 111–12.
Friend, Craig Thompson, 5–6
Fusionist Party, 1, 114, 139
Gaines, Kevin, 3
Garrett, York, 113
Garvey, Marcus, 136, 143–44
Garveyism, 10–11, 143
Gender differences, and boyhood, 55
Gendered dynamics:
in black church, 43–45, 50–51;
in black community, 4–5, 11–12, 13;
freemasonry and, 106–8;
of interracial outreach and collective problem-solving, 130–32;
of race activism, 167;
in YMI, 83–94
Gender elasticity, 6
Gender system, Victorian, 17–18
George, Anna, 83
Georgia State Fair, 135
Gilkes, Cheryl Townsend, 23
Gilmore, Glenda, 3
Glover, Lorri, 5–6
Grady, Henry, 137
Graham, A. A., 46
Grandfather clauses, 8
Grand Lodge, 110, 116–18, 122, 126
Great Depression, 124
Great Migration, 160–61
Greenlee, George, 85, 92
Gutman, Herbert, 5
Haddock, W. H., 117
Hall, John, 138–39
Hall, Prince, 108
Hamilton, George, 86
Hamilton, J. H., 91
Hampton, Wade, 137
Hancock, William H., 204n18
Hargrove, F. S., 123
Hariston, J. W., 39
Harris, Eugene, 9
Harris, Fenton, 86–87
Harris-Johnson, Bettie, 145
Harrison, R. D., 117
Harrison, Richard B., 90
Haynes, George, 156
Haywood, William Dallas, 140
Herring, Kate, 155
Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks, 32, 91–92
High, Hattie, 83, 84
“Holding the boy,” 70–71
Holiness practice, 35–36
Holloman, J. L., 74
Holt, F. B., 70, 71
Home:
as center of black life, 21–22, 26–27;
environment of, and boy problem, 71–73;
freemasonry and, 104;
as male sanctuary, 27
Home missionary work, 24–26, 28, 44, 49, 50
Hood, James Walker, 107
Hood, Joseph W., 110, 112
Horton, George Moses, 151
(p.240) Houston, Henry M., 68–69, 72
Howell, Charles Thomas, 98
Howell, Mary, 76
Hufham, Thomas M., 139
Hunter, Andrea, 4
Hunter, Charles Norfleet:
accommodation and, 165;
career of, 212n28;
death of, 164;
Jamestown Exhibit and, 148–50;
Jim Crow theatrical pageant and, 158;
journalism of, 150–51;
as leader, 166;
public race relations campaign of, 139–42, 170;
Raleigh Emancipation Day ceremonies and, 136;
slave memories and, 152–53;
state fairs and, 131, 135;
after WWI, 161–62, 163
Hunter, Mrs. Charles Norfleet, 145
Hunter, Osborne, Jr., 135
Hunter, Osborne, Sr., 140
Hunton, William A., 64
Individualism:
extremist, 6;
socially responsible, 77, 79, 88
Industrialization, and migration, 57
Interpretation of experience, 151–52
Interracial cooperation, 132–33, 147–48, 153
Jackson, Benjamin James, 87, 91
Jackson, L. T., 130
Jackson, William Clinton, 159
Jamestown celebration exhibit, 148–50
Janiewski, Dolores, 92
Jim Crow laws:
black church and, 23;
effects of, on black men, 6;
emigration from state and, 2;
passage of, 8;
passive resistance to, 59;
responses to, 153
Jim Crow theatrical pageant, 158
Johnson, E. A., 72
Johnson, James Weldon, 155–56, 159
Johnson, S. A., 44
Johnson, S. C., 32
Jones, Absalom, 108
Jones, Ed, 99
Jones, Henry E., 88, 89
Jones, Maggie, 83, 93, 100, 101
Kennedy, William, 42
Kennedy, W. J., Jr., 67
Kerlin, Robert T., 156
Knights of Pythias, 124
Kyle, L. W., 162
Leadership:
accommodation and, 135, 139–42, 165;
competing ambitions of, 133;
on cooperation with white power structure, 147–48;
at Emancipation Day ceremonies and state fairs, 131–32;
overview of, 131;
politics and, 139–40;
praise and condemnation of audiences by, 142–44;
rhetoric about, 157.
See also specific leaders
Lee, Walter S., 89, 90, 177n38
Lewis, Earl, 142
Linney, Frank A., 155
Lipscomb, Mrs. E. H., 145
Lipscombe, C. C., 90
Logan, Rayford, 7
Long, Cora B., 69
Look Homeward Angel (Wolfe), 87
Loyalty, black, 208n56, 208n57
Lynch, Mary, 40
Lynchings, 7–8, 41, 122, 155. See also Dyer Anti-Lynching bill
Mammy (C. H. Brown), 146–47
Manhood:
communal, 7, 11–12;
cultural hegemonic trope of, 7;
defining, and churchmen, 50–51;
public spaces and, 168;
scholarship on, 5–6
Manly, Alexander, 2, 115, 176n35
Mary Potter School, 56, 76–79
Masculinization campaigns, 6–7, 18, 39
Master/slave reunion dinners, 148
McCauley, L. E., 155
McCoy, Alonzo, 90
McDowell, Stanley, 100
McKissick, Ernest B., 83, 86, 89–90, 92, 102
McLaughlin, Eleanor, 32
McLean, Angus W., 161
McNamee, Charles, 84
McRary, Robert Bruce, 67:
Eastern Star and, 119–20;
as Grand Master, 116, 117–18, 121, 129;
as Mason, 104, 111, 202n1
Men and Religion Forward movement, 38, 39, 178n4
Mial, Sally, 24, 29, 32, 36–37
Middle class:
biases of, 72;
racial uplift and, 12–13;
respectability and, 58–60;
urbanization and, 58–59;
YMI and, 92
Migration, 57, 160–61
Millennialist outlook, 140
Miller, James V., 86, 88, 100
(p.241) Miller, Kelly, 85
Miller, Leotus O., 86, 88, 93, 100, 111
Million Man March, 13
Ministers, cultivation and support of, 37–38
Mjagkij, Nina, 65
Modernity, embrace of, and fairs, 134–35
Moore, A. M., 20, 64, 68, 74, 75
Moore, Bartholomew F., 136
Moore, C. A., 73
Moore, Thomas, 99
Moorland, Jesse E., 64
Morality, and black women, 21–22, 25, 56–57, 81, 107
Morris, Robert, 111
Morrow, J. S., 84
Mossell, Nathan, 150
Moton, Robert R., 40, 143
Muscular Christianity, 18, 39, 65, 185n74
Music, as socializing tool for children, 70–71
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 124, 155–56, 158
National Association of Colored Women (NACW), 143, 193n62
Neely, Lizzie, 24
Neely, Thomas B., 43
New Negro Man, 41
New Negro movement, 156–57, 164, 171
New York Age, 151
Nickle, E. D., 144
Nicks, Robert, 79–80
Nipson, John, Jr., 88
North Carolina:
documentation of black contributions to, 150–51, 152;
emigration from, 2, 160
North Carolina Black Baptist Convention, 17
North Carolina Industrial Association, 135
Odum, Howard, 26, 106
O'Kelly, Berry, 111, 142–43
Order of the Eastern Star:
aid work of, 113–14;
founding of, 111–12;
patriarchal authority and, 107–8;
Prince Hall Masons and, 112, 118–21, 125–26, 127–29, 169–70;
structure of, 112–13;
suffrage and, 123–24;
Summers on, 106
Orner, Eloise, 91
Orner, Samuel, 130–31
Oxley, Lawrence A., 56
Pair, Cora A., 45
Palmer Memorial Institute, 79–80
Partners, black women as, 23–24, 167–68, 171
Paternalism, in black church, 31
Patriarchal authority:
Eastern Star auxiliary and, 107–8, 125–26, 127–29;
manliness and, 115;
protection concept and, 169–70
Patriotism, demonstrations of, 154–55
Pearson, E. W., 100
Pegues, Albert Witherspoon, 29, 37–38, 60, 73–74
Penn, Mrs. Garland, 73
Perry, J. W., 116
Pettey, Sarah Dudley, 27, 69
Plessy v. Ferguson, 8
Poe, Clarence, 155
Political activism, 3, 4, 15
Political clubs, 15, 155
Politics:
black leadership and, 139–40;
freemasonry and, 122–29. See also specific political parties
Pope, Manassa Thomas, 15
Potter, Mary, 76
Prince Hall Masons:
benevolence and charity of, 117;
classist rhetoric of, 116;
communal infrastructure and, 116–17;
Dellinger on, 104;
Eastern Star auxiliary and, 112, 118–21, 125–26, 127–29, 169–70;
financial issues and, 126–27;
lodges and membership, 106, 111;
male image and, 105, 127;
rehabilitation of freemasonry and, 124–25;
roots of, 108;
structure of, 108–9. See also Grand Lodge
Progress, debate about, 162–64, 165
Progressive, race relations as, 138–39
Prostitution, houses of, 148
Protection, rhetoric of, 47–48, 107, 125–26, 143, 169–70
Public spaces:
in African-American tradition, 22;
black community and, 170–71;
within church, 30–31;
dissension in, 51;
Emancipation Day and state fair ceremonies in, 132, 170;
manhood and, 168;
in YMI, 82–94
Queer studies, and black male identity, 175n15
“Race man,” 171
Race relations, nadir in, 7–8
(p.242) Race riots:
in 1920, 155;
at turn of twentieth century, 7–8;
white supremacy campaigns and, 53;
in Wilmington, 1, 10, 114–15;
in Winston-Salem, 122
Racial reform, during Jim Crow, 3–4
Racial uplift:
black men's role in, 168;
Emancipation Day and state fair events and, 165–66;
Floyd's Flowers and, 53–54;
gender and, 20;
middle-class men and, 12–13;
state fairs and, 141;
Victorianism and, 58;
white reformers and, 148
“Radical obedience,” 32
Randolph, L. R., 120
Religion, and masonry, 110
Republican Party, 1, 155
Respectability, 58–60, 73, 92, 169, 175n23
“Review of Negro Life in North Carolina with My Recollections” (C. N. Hunter), 152
Riddick, I. S., 74
Roberts, Lossie B., 145
Roberts, Nicholas Frank:
on “bad atmosphere,” 93;
on boy problem, 52, 60–61, 67–68, 70–71, 80;
on equality of women, 21
Rockefeller, Laura Spelman, 56
Rogers, J. A., 156–57
Rolinson, Mary, 10–11
Roosevelt, Theodore, 212n22, 213n32
Ruether, Rosemary, 32
Russell, Daniel, 1
Samuels, J. E., 157
Sanders, D. J., 66
Scholarship:
on Jim Crow, 2–3;
on manhood and manhood rights, 5–6
Secret societies, 207n39. See also Freemasonry; Prince Hall Masons
Segregation, impatience with, 156, 157
Separate spheres ideology, 9, 21–22
Sex segregation in urban areas, 91–92
Sexual behavior of African Americans, 40–41
Sexual exploitation of black women, 11, 41
Shaw, George Clayton, 76, 77, 78–79, 93
Shaw, Mary, 77
Shaw, Stephanie, 4, 77
Shaw University, 38, 57, 70
Shepard, Augustus, 20
Shepard, Hattie, 48
Shepard, James E., 1, 75, 111, 122, 139
Shepard, Pattie G., 24, 32–33, 46, 48, 49
Simmons, Furnifold, 114–15
Simmons, W. S., 120–21
Slave memories, 141, 152–53, 158, 164
Slavery:
effects of, on black men, 6, 53;
gender and, 167;
protection and, 107, 169–70;
rekindling past of, 148, 152–53;
sexuality and, 41.
Smith, Ezekiel E., 71, 111, 184n64
Smith, Harry, 144
Smith, J. C., 21
Smith, J. W., 2
Social Gospel ideology, 39
Socially responsible individualism, 77, 79, 88
Social reform, 40–42
Social welfare work, 3, 38–40, 42
Southern Manhood (Friend and Glover), 5–6
Spanish-American War, 9–10
Spaulding, Charles Clinton (C. C.):
Baptist State Convention and, 48;
at boys’ conference, 67;
on Boy Scout movement, 66;
on home, 27, 72;
on Sunday schools, 74–75;
youth and, 42–43, 61, 64
Stannard, Hannah, 44
Star of Zion (journal), 11
State fairs, “colored”:
attendance and activities at, 144–45;
description of, 131–32;
as discursive site, 164–65;
Emancipation Day ceremonies, 136;
exhibits for, 135;
Hunter and, 162;
interracial cooperation and, 132–33;
legislative support for, 149;
in North Carolina, 135–36;
origins of, 134–35;
in public spaces, 132, 170;
racial uplift and, 141, 165–66;
role of women in, 145–47;
speakers at, 136
Stephens, Edward L., 83, 84, 177n38
Streetcar legislation, 8
Street culture, 57, 60, 92
Suffrage, 123–24, 146. See also Disfranchisement
Summers, Martin, 6, 7, 106
Sunday school:
boys in, 60–62;
instruction in, 73–74;
structural organization of, 74–75
Sunday School Forward movement, 68
Swopes, Rodney Rush, 82
Talbert, Mary, 128
Tate, W. K., 71
Teachers, black, 153
Telfair, J. W., 121
(p.243) Temperance workers, 40
Texts, multivalent meaning of, 32
Third Regiment, 10
Thomas, William Hannibal, 81
Tinsley, J. A., 67
Tobias, Channing, 161–62
Torrence, Dr. William, 99
Trent, William J.:
Atlanta YMCA and, 194n75;
McKissick and, 90;
photo of, 98;
tribute program for, 103;
Walker and, 88–89;
YMI and, 85, 130;
on YMI women, 83
Tucker, Henry St. George, 150
Tupper, Henry M., 34
Turner, William S., 158, 163
United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), 10
Urbanization, and boys, 56–59
Urban League, 143
Values of churchmen, 69–70
Vanderbilt, George, 12, 82, 83, 85
Vass, S. N., 32
Victorianism, 17–18, 58, 59–60, 65
Vincent, A. B., 28
Voting rights, 122–23, 146. See also Disfranchisement
Walker, James, 88–89, 90, 91
Walker, Lizzie L., 32
Walker, Ormonde, 162
Waring, J.H.N., 69–70
Washington, Booker T.:
at Atlanta Exposition, 88;
as black spokesman, 40;
on education, 4;
“New Negroes for a New Century,” 135;
on secret societies, 105–6;
at state fairs, 136, 137, 139
Washington, Mrs. Booker T., 27
Weare, Walter, 140
Weeks, A.L.E., 37
White, Deborah Gray, 3, 145
White, George H.:
black office holders and, 114;
disfranchisement and, 1, 2, 11;
emigration of, 176n35;
as Mason, 111
White reformers and racial uplift, 148
White supremacist ideology:
Aycock and, 137–38;
home and, 21–22;
race relations and, 8, 53;
Spanish-American War and, 9–10;
Wilson and, 154
Whitted, James, 110
Whitted, John Alston (J. A.):
biography of, 182n37;
on churchmen, 38;
on convention, 28;
photo of, 96;
on race work, 43–44;
women's convention and, 26, 35;
on women's work, 17, 28, 29;
on youth, 43, 61, 62
Willard, Frances, 23
Williams, Charles H., 63
Williams, Charles N., 142
Williams, Fannie Barrier, 167
Williams, James E., 117
Williams, M. W., 70
Wilmington race riot, 1, 10, 114–15
Wilson, Woodrow, 154
Winston-Salem, 122
Witherspoon, W. F., 67
Wolfe, Thomas, 87
Womack, Mrs. S. S., 11
“Woman's Era,” 3
Women:
agency of, 37, 167;
behavior appropriate for, 21;
boys and, 55–56;
church activism of, 17, 18–19, 23–27, 31–33;
community work of, 128;
cooperation of, with male counterparts, 32–33, 43–45;
Emancipation Day and fair events and, 145–47, 165–66;
gender roles of, 92;
labor of, outside home, 72;
morality of, 21–22, 25, 56–57, 81, 107;
moral lapses of race and, 73;
as partners, 23–24, 167–68, 171;
public presence of, 113–14;
sexual exploitation of, 11, 41;
social reform and, 40;
YMI and, 83;
young women and, 69. See also Order of the Eastern Star
Women's Baptist Convention, 19, 30, 35, 42, 44
Women's Christian Temperance Union, 40
Woodson, Carter G., 151
World fairs, 134
Worlds, J. J., 121
World's Columbian Exposition, 134
World War I, 10, 154, 162, 171
Wright, R. R., 135, 141
YMCA:
black youth and, 64–67;
establishment of black branches of, 42;
interracial relations and, 214n47;
Mary Potter School and, 78;
women and, 198n122
Young, Ada, 131
Young, James H.:
at Emancipation Day ceremony, 147–48, 157;
(p.244) as Mason, 110, 111, 114, 116, 121;
war savings work and, 216n72;
Washington and, 139
Young Men's Institute (YMI):
activities of, 87, 90–91;
assistance given by, 89–90;
black women and, 83;
boys and, 56;
building for, 83, 84–85;
community-building efforts and, 92–93;
debt of, 85–86;
description of, 12, 82;
drugstore, 99, 100;
Emancipation Day ceremony of, 131;
founding of, 84;
functions and offerings of, 86;
gender identity for male youth and, 81;
members of, 86–87;
networking and, 88, 89;
orchestra of, 98, 200n133;
sex segregation at, 91–92, 169;
“Solve the Problem” meeting at, 130–31
Young People's Christian and Educational Congress, 189n27
Youth:
black pride among boys, 42–43;
music as socializing tool for, 70–71;
relevance of black church to, 63–64;
Whitted on, 43, 61, 62. See also Boy problem
YWCA, 191n48, 214n47