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Americanization in the StatesImmigrant Social Welfare Policy, Citizenship, and National Identity in the United States, 19081929$
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Christina A. Ziegler-McPherson

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780813033617

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813033617.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM FLORIDA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.florida.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University Press of Florida, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in FLASO for personal use.date: 26 June 2022

The California Plan

The California Plan

The Commission of Immigration and Housing, 1913–1917

(p.39) 2 The California Plan
Americanization in the States

Christina A. Ziegler-McPherson

University Press of Florida

The immigrant welfare activities of the New York Bureau of Industries and Immigration (NYBII) inspired progressives in other parts of the country to develop similar programs to address their states' immigration issues. California, already under the leadership of progressive Governor Hiram W. Johnson, followed New York's lead, and in 1912–13 established first a temporary immigration commission and then a permanent agency, the California Commission of Immigration and Housing (CCIH). By 1917, the CCIH had developed an effective program of inspecting agricultural labor camps, collecting and resolving immigrants' complaints, and monitoring IWW activity. The commission's labor camp inspection and complaints resolution work was similar to that of the NYBII but the Californians' concern about labor radicalism was distinctive and reflected the unique conditions of California's unskilled labor market.

Keywords:   NYBII, immigration, Hiram Johnson, CCIH, Americanization, social welfare, labor market

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