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Brazil, Lyric, and the Americas$

Charles A. Perrone

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780813034218

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813034218.001.0001

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(p.239) Index

(p.239) Index

Source:
Brazil, Lyric, and the Americas
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
ABC folk form, 40
abolitionist poetry, 150
Accioly, Marcus:committed writing, 102–3;
globalization in, 131;
historical awareness, 103;
Latinomérica, 127–35;
manifesto, 130;
“poetic justice,” 100
activism in the arts, 20–21
Adderly, Cannonball, 81
African-American poets, 77
African-American solidarity, 89–92
Aguilar, José Roberto, 71
Ainsa, Fernando, 153, 163
Aleixo, Ricardo, 78
Alfonso X (the Wise), 141
Alma América (Santos Chocano), 100
Almanak (São Paulo), 53f, 54
Alves, Antônio F. de Castro. See Castro Alves, Antônio F. de
Alvim, Francisco, 93
Amado, Jorge, 146, 206n25
Amâncio, Moacir, x, 194n6
Amazonian area, 156
America:as all-encompassing whole, 125;
as ideological construction, 30;
as assemblage of “indisciplines,” 126;
Carvalho on, 126;
early mapmakers on, 11, 26–27;
as metaphor for surprise and invention, 32;
as name of continent, 9;
post-1800 titles, 99;
prerepub-lican use in Brazil, 101;
singular US usage, 26, 185, 189n2;
three Americas, 97–98;
use of term, 26, 191n30
América Latina, historical roots of name, 27–28
America(n), use of terms, 26, 185, 189n2
Americanism:Carvalho’s approach, 124;
ideal, 113
Americanization, less pernicious view of, xv
Americanness, 94, 141, 184
americano, ambivalence of term, 70
Americas:inclusive use of, 3;
plurality of, xiv
“America-scape,” xvi
Amoreira, Flávio Viegas, 94, 197n74
“amorse” (Augusto de Campos), 146, 147f, 148;
versions, 207n28
Andean nations, 125
Andrade, Carlos Drummond de, 40, 61
Andrade, Mário de, 102, 123;
Amado on, 206n25;
Borges contrasted, 144–45;
as figure of modernism, 143–44
Andrade, Oswald de:“Cannibalist Manifesto,” 25–26, 70–71, 102, 168, 173, 198n9, 201n58;
Carvalho compared, 120–21;
compared to Williams, 58, 61;
dedication to, 21;
Fernández Retamar on, 25;
on film, 70–71;
Girondo meeting, 145;
influence of, 67, 167;
landmark contributions, 18–19;
“Manifesto of Pau-Brasil Poetry,” 18–19, 121, 167–68;
musical homage, 114;
Noigandres poets linked, 20;
old/new juxtaposition, 175;
Poesia Pau-Brasil, 102;
screenplays, 198n8;
Sousândrade compared, 112
Andrade, Paula Valéria, 181
animal-rights outlook, 112
Antelo, Raúl, 144, 161
anti-acculturation, agents of, 96
anti-imperialism:in Accioly, 134;
impact on poetry, 48, 153;
postwar changes in, 33;
in song, 155;
versus Pan-Americanism, 29
Antilles, 118, 120
Antunes, Arnaldo: x;
“A utopia continua,” 182;
“Céu-Hell,” 41f, 42;
“Dentro,” 56f, 56;
on film, 72;
“Gertrudiana,” 56, 57f, 58;
“Ilha,” 14, 15f;
influence of, 182;
influence of popular music, 86;
“Now/Nowhere/Here” installation, 36, 194n10;
on Stein, 55;
US appearances, 36–37, 194n10
(p.240) anxiety of influence, 193n66
Aparicio, Frances R., 166
Appadurai, Arjun, 2, 5
area studies, 2–3
Argentina, 100, 144–47
Ariel (Rodó), 99–100
Arlt, Roberto, 184
art:function of, 143;
“necessity of,” 168
Ashbery, John, 49
Assunção, Ademir, 89
Asunción Silva, José, 148, 207n28
Atlantic, references to, 10
Augusto, Eudoro, 38
Azevedo, Beatriz, 89
Azevedo, Carlito, 55, 190n15
Baker, Chet, 78–79, 84–86
Banda Hispânica:aim of, 138;
described, 136, 138
Bandeira, Manuel, 54, 61, 145–46, 150
Barbosa, Frederico, x, 24–25, 80–81, 190–91n29
Barthes, Roland, 134
Baudelaire, 116
Beat Generation poetry, 61–62, 77, 171
Belo Horizonte, 89–91
Bernstein, Charles, 4, 18, 24, 186–87, 201n58
Bernucci, Leopoldo M., x, 100, 101, 128, 202n11
big-band music, 68
Bilbao Barquín, 27
bilingual binational anthologies, 34
bilingual Spanish-Portuguese books, 46
Bishop, Elizabeth, 16, 191n31, 197n79
Black Power era, 91
Bloom, Harold, 31, 193n66
blues music, 67, 77, 86, 89–91, 169, 180
bolero, 139
Bonpland, Aimé, 203n24
Bonvicino, Régis, 17–18, 191n35;
on cliches, 191n35;
on Disney, 93–94;
joke poem, 199n16
Bopp, Raul, 102
Borges, Jorge Luis, 101, 140, 206n16;
Mário de Andrade compared, 144;
poems about 144–45;
translations into Portuguese, 146
Bosco, Francisco, 75
Bossa Nova, 85, 86, 176, 177, 199n36, 208n49, 211n20
boxing, 134
Brasiguayo, 160, 210n66
Brasil, Emanuel, 171
brasilidade, 34
Brazil:1990s generation, 7–8;
insularity of, xiii–xiv;
origins of toponym, 10–11. See also Empire of Brazil
Brinks motif, 161
Britto, Paulo Henriques, x, 64–65, 89, 191n31
Broadway, 122, 124–25
Brotherston, Gordon, xi, 99, 204n43
Brown, Nicholas, 51
Brown, Robert, 202n23
Buarque, Chico, 86, 130, 154
Bueno, Alexei, 200–201n54
Bueno, Wilson, 160–61, 210n66
building materials, 60–61
bullfighting, 145
Burke, Kenneth, 42
Byron, Lord, 107
Cabral, Pedro Álvares: 129;
Accioly on, 133, 135;
in Brazilwood Manifesto, 19
“Cage: Chance: Change” (Campos), 16, 17f
Cage, John, 16, 81
Caiafa, Janice, 38–39, 51, 55, 194n16;
on silver screen, 74–75
Caliban, 25, 185, 201n55
Camões, Luís Vaz de, 101, 128, 134
Campos, Augusto de: x, 21, 54, 191n33, 192n41;
“amorse,” 146, 147f, 148;
“Cage: Chance: Change,” 16, 17f;
on Cole Porter, 199n16;
contribution of, 16;
Dickinson translations, 54, 196n55;
on music, 86;
reading of Gertrude Stein, 58;
on Sousândrade, 113;
Sousândrade and Baudelaire compared, 116
Campos, Haroldo de:Carvalho compared, 118;
contribution of, 16;
Ginsburg compared, 61;
on O guesa, 114;
influence of, 151, 179;
invention in, 20;
on invention-novel, 21;
Manhattan motif in, 51;
neobaroque poetry of, 158, 160;
Octavio Paz link, 151–53;
Sousândrade and Baudelaire compared, 116
Canada, 160
cannibalism references, 111, 112, 183–84
“Cannibalist Manifesto, The,” 25–26;
influence of, 167–68;
as modernist offering, 102;
on movies, 70–71;
roteiros, 71, 198n10
Canto general (Neruda), 98, 100, 114
(p.241) Cantor, Andrés, 138
Capinan, José Carlos, 137f, 154, 205n
capitalism, critiques of, 40–41, 184–85;
by Sousândrade, 109, 110–12, 113, 116
capital punishment, 155
“Carapuça,” 67–68, 197–98n4
car culture, 42
Cardenal, Ernesto, 100
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique, 11, 139–40
Caribbean, insularity, xiii
Carneiro, Rosane, 44–46
Carnival, 13, 171, 205 epi. note
cartographic representations, 10–11
Carvalho, Ronald de:critics of his time, 123–24;
impact of, 126–27;
as inter-American antecedent, 16;
as model, 103;
Oswald de Andrade compared, 120–21;
significance of epic, 102;
Toda a América, 117–27, 143, 193n1
Casa de las Américas prizes, 153
Castro Alves, Antônio F. de, 87, 150–51
caudillos, 142
“Céu-Hell” (Antunes), 41f, 42
Cevasco, Maria Elisa, 93
Chacal, 87–88
chaos, cash from, 176
chaos, theory of, 176, 212n30
Chávez, Hugo, 205n
Chávez-Silverman, Susana, 166
Chevalier, Michel, 27
Chiampi, Irlemar, 143
“Chiclete com banana,” 166, 169–70
Chico Science & Nação Zumbi (CSNZ), 173–75
Chomsky, Noam, 184
Cicero, 19–20
Cinemaginário (Corona), 72
Cisneros, Antonio, 100
Cisneros, Odile, x, 203n32, 210n69
clichés:Bonvicino on, 191n35;
of Brazil, 11–12, 13;
of criminalization, 76
Código journal, 54
coffee, 112, 121
Cohn, Robert Greer, 55
Colombia, 104, 106
“Colombo” (Pignatari), 148, 150
colonial era:epic poetry, 101;
in O guesa, 107;
matrix of power, 29;
Portuguese imperialism compared, 13;
Santiago on, 197n2
colonialism:in Accioly, 127–28;
neobaroque response to, 160
Coltrane, John, 77–79
Columbus, Christopher, 9, 11, 98, 99, 101, 113, 129, 134–35, 150, 184
comic books, 67;
superheroes in, 67, 94
comparative literary history, 162–63
comparative literature, 3, 5, 18, 29, 162
complex connectivity, 6, 186
concrete poetry:agenda of invention, 20;
described, 16;
founders, 20;
influence of, 151;
influences on Veloso, 114;
musical homage, 114;
rescuing history, 104;
ties to Spanish America, 146;
use of English, 34;
US poets promoted, 33;
visual poems, 146–51
condor, 132, 150
conferences and symposia, ix, 28, 152–53, 157, 209n58
conjunctive America-scape, 66
conquest and colonization:Accioly on, 128, 129, 133–34;
Brazil, 101;
compared, 142;
epic poetry, 98;
Ercilla, 99;
in O guesa, 106, 108;
Hegel on, 128;
Iberian competition, 141–42;
invention and, xiv;
language issues, 140–41;
legacies, 8;
naming, 26;
naming practices contrasted, 26–27;
Neruda and Sousân-drade on, 114;
paradigm of power, 129;
Pignatari on, 150;
quincentenary, 134–35;
reverse, 128;
violence of, 133–34
constructivism, 126
consumer culture, 7;
jazz versus, 81
convergence, 163
Corona, Ricardo, x, 34, 49;
“Aguafuerte porteña,” 184;
Cinemaginário, 72;
pop-music link, 88–89;
“Tráfico de palavras,” 61–62
Correio paulistano, 20
Cortázar, Julio, 135
cosmic race, 143
Costa, Horácio, x;
comparativist view of, 18;
events, 157–58;
on Paz-Haroldo bond, 152;
rewriting history, 160;
on transamerican citizens of the world, 46
Coutinho, Afrânio, 33
Coyote, 18
Creeley, Robert, 8, 18, 49, 83;
on Brazil, 12
Crescendo durante a guerra numa província ultramarina (Santiago), 67, 69f
criminalization, cliches of, 76
(p.242) Cristobo, Aníbal, 157
Crook, Larry, 174
Cruz, Sor Juana Inés de la, 145
Cuba:influences in song, 208n49;
significance of, 141, 153
Cuban Revolution, 33, 153
cultura brasileira, 167
cultural ambassadorship, 16
cultural cannibalism metaphor, 25, 46, 184
cultural decentralization, 170
cultural flows, 2, 4, 18, 48, 176
cultural globalization, 2, 93
cultural imperialism:classic texts of, 201n55;
movies as, 68;
musical creations, 170
culture:elite, 2;
use of term, 2
Cummings, E. E., 16, 33, 50, 54, 115, 152, 200n52
Daniel, Claudio, x, 114, 160, 192n47
Dante, 107, 134
Darío, Rubén, 143
Dassiê, Franklin Alves, 82
Davis, Miles, 78, 79, 81, 82
dedications, 34, 48, 67, 115, 184, 196n55
Deleuze, Gilles, 5, 74
“Dentro” (Antunes), 56f, 56
dependency theory, 140
deterritorialization, 5–6;
in Antunes, 36;
in Caiafa, 74;
in “Colombo,” 148;
in Leite, 76;
neobaroque, 159;
in popular music, 91;
regional integration and, 162;
in Salomão, 47;
use of term, xv, 179
Dickinson, Emily, 16, 54–55, 196n55
dictatorship, novel of, 129–30
dictatorships, military:impact on arts, 165;
impact on song, 154–55
Diegues, Douglas, 210n66
Dietrich, Marlene, 74–75, 199n18
digital worlds, 44–46
discovery:Cardoso anecdote, 139–40;
invention related, xiv;
letters of, 129;
mythology of, 181;
otherness of Brazil, 9–10;
reading via negation, 30–31;
Tropicalists on, 168
Disney references, 51, 93–94, 201n56
displacement and deforestation, 156
Dolhkinoff, Luis, 40
Dom Pedro II, 110, 112, 181
Durão, José de Santa Rita, 101
Dylan, Bob, 86, 87, 155
Eça de Queiroz, José Maria de, 155
Echevarría, Roberto González, 100
Egg of Columbus legend, 151
“Eldorado” (Poe), 53f, 54
electronic communications:control over, 44–45;
expressive culture and technology, 2, 187–88
Elias, Eliane, 97, 201n1
Eliot, T. S., 50–51
elusivo, 39, 194n19
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, xiv
Empire of Brazil, 105, 109, 111, 140, 142
engagé verse. See political poetry
English language, as master’s language, 25, 46, 184
English language appropriations, 38–48;
in age of globalization, 44;
anxiety and unaffected-ness, 44;
concrete poetry, 34;
discourse of questioning, 40;
impact on pop music, 35, 181;
inscriptions on Lusophone poems, 38;
for legitimacy or prestige, 177;
meanings of, 35–36;
necessity to use English, 47;
politics of, xv;
poster-poem on film, 73;
postwar, 33–34;
shared and resituated, 39–40;
“talking back,” 46;
in titles, 37–38;
in Tropical-ism, 177–78
English language markets, 5
entertainment industry, 93–94
epic poetry:colonial era, 101;
of conquest, 98;
defining, 98;
grandest examples of, 98;
O guesa, 103–17;
Hegel on, 128;
history of, 98;
independence era, 98, 99;
La araucana, 99;
Latinomérica, 127–35;
modernist, 101–2;
post-modernist, 102–3;
Toda a América, 117–27
epic realism, 130
epigraphs, 34, 48–49, 55, 95, 127
e-poetry, 21
Ercilla y Zúñiga, Alonso de, 99
Eshu, 181
Espínola, Adriano, x, 50–51, 58, 102, 115
Europe:Carvalho on Old World, 120, 123;
conferences, 158;
influences on O guesa, 106–7;
language issues, 140;
redefining themselves, 30;
revolutionary break with, 8;
tradition cited in Brazil, 95;
as worn-out self, 141
European gaze resisted, 123
exoticism, 123
expansive poetry, 102
(p.243) experimental language, 175
expressive culture, 166, 187
Falcão, Washington, 137f
family violence, 133–34
Faulkner, William, 92
Félix, Moacyr, 153–54
Fernández Retamar, Roberto, 25
Ferraz, Eucanaã, 200n38
Figueiredo, Carlos Valero, 53f
film, 68–76. See also movies
Fischer, Ernst, 168
Fitz, Earl, xi, 3, 98, 129, 186
flash (quick) perception, 88
forró, 87, 200n40
Fortuna, Felipe, 197n1
France, 26–27;
Amérique Latine, 27, 192n54;
cultural prestige of, 34;
influence on Cardoso, 139–40;
university cooperation, 28
Franco, Jean, 6
Freitas Filho, Armando, 63–64
Freyre, Gilberto, 146, 207n26;
Hispanics compared, 28;
on Whitman, 193
Fundação Cultural de Curitiba, 209n58
Galician-Portuguese, 141
Galinsky, Philip, 175
Galvão, Donizete, 90
Gama, José Basílio da, 101
Garbo, Greta, 74–75, 199n18
García Canclini, Néstor, 6
García Lorca, Federico, 50, 51
García Márquez, Gabriel, 129
Gardel, André, 51
Garo, Nicola de, 119f
gaze:European, 123;
masculine, 55, 198n15;
northern, 181
“Gertrudiana” (Antunes), 56, 57f, 58
Getz, Stan, 85
Gil, Gilberto, 87;
“Chiclete com banana,” 169;
CSNZ contact, 174–75;
on mangue beat, 174;
mangue movement compared, 165;
“Mara-catu atômico,” 172;
“necessity of art,” 168;
poetry of song, 164;
political themes, 154;
Salomão link, xv;
verse about, 114
Gilberto, João, 85, 86
Ginsburg, Allen, 61, 77, 98;
Salomão on, 62
Girondo, Oliverio, 145
Glissant, Édouard, 98
global capitalism, 75
globalization:in Accioly, 131;
communicational concept, 2;
as complex connectivity, 6, 186;
as confluence of factors, 2;
consumer culture dictates, 7;
cultural dimensions, 2;
differences with earlier, 48;
impact on artistic contexts, 7;
impact of English, 44;
information technology, 46;
malaise in, 93;
poetry nexus, 1, 5;
regional trade agreements, 4;
resistance to, 93;
study of culture, 2;
subglobalization, 3;
use of term, 2
globalization of culture, Antunes on, 36
Goa, 197n2
God, as Brazilian, 94
Goldstein, Laurence, 68
Gonçalves Dias, Antônio, 101
Grant, U. S., 110, 112
Greene, Roland, xi, 3, 4, 8, 13, 19, 189n4, 209n61
Guarani, 160, 161, 210n66
Guattari, Felix, 5
Guevara, Che, 154
Guillén, Nicolás, 208n49
Guimarães, Júlio Castañón, 55, 83–85
Gullar, Ferreira, 102, 153
Gunn, Giles, 8, 189nn1, 2
Hegel, Georg, 128
hemispheric approach, 3;
in Accioly, 127–28, 136, 138;
in Carvalho, 117, 118, 120, 121, 123;
Carvalho on, 117–18;
impact of English, 44;
of Mautner, 87, 165, 168;
modernism in, 122–23;
overview of epic poetry, 98, 103;
in Pignatari, 148, 151;
in Sousândrade, 108, 116–17;
USAmerican cultural production, 96
Hendrix, Jimi, 89, 180, 181, 213n2
Henriques Neto, Afonso, 78, 154
Henríquez Ureña, Pedro, 146
Herder, Johann Gottfried, 101
hierarchy, sense of, 140
hip-hop music, 166
Hispanic America, use of term, 28
historical awareness, 103;
engagement with, 130;
separation of Spanish America, 138
history:colonization, 11;
neobaroque views of, 159–60;
Tropicalists on, 167
Hölderlin, Friedrich, 135
Holiday, Billie, 80
Hollanda, Heloísa Buarque de, 7, 34, 35, 92, 157
(p.244) Homer, 20, 107, 127
homosexuality, 50
Hoover, Paul, 63
Hopenhayn, Martin, 81
Hughes, Langston, 77, 90
Hughes, Ted, 73
Huidobro, Vicente, xiv, 114
Humboldt, Alexander von, 104
Hunter, Alberta, 90–91, 92
Hy-Brasil, 10–11
hybridity/hybridism, 6, 46, 160, 181
hypertextuality, 4
Ibero-America, 27, 28, 97, 123, 127, 136, 142, 146, 158, 160, 187
identity:anti-imperialism and, 155;
Brazilian compared, 142;
cross-border, 156–57;
Latino, 167;
national, 142;
search for, 128, 134
“Ilha” (visual poem), 14, 15f
imperialism:Accioly questioning, 127;
cultural, 68;
fears of regional, 142
Inca culture, 125
independence era:Brazil, 101;
celebration of, 114;
compared, 142;
epic poetry, 98, 99;
in O guesa, 106;
language issues, 140
Indianism, 99, 101, 104, 201n7
influence:anxiety of, 193n66;
as conventional device, 5
information technology, 94, 95
Inimigo rumor journal, 161
insularity:of Brazil, xiii;
Carvalho on, 120;
double-edged status, 12;
as lyric motif, 12, 181, 182–83;
outreach as antidote, 66;
responses to, 14;
transamerican focus, 9–10;
use of term, xiii–xiv;
in Vocogramas, 148
inter-American contacts:musico-literary, 180;
soap operas, 139;
traveling and translation, 16–17
inter-American literature, 146;
concept of, 3;
as emergent field, 186;
events, 157–58
inter-American studies:literature, 3;
poetic discourse studies in, x
interarts thrust, 64
interconnectivity, 6
interfaces:expressive culture and media, 66;
global mass media, 181;
local/global, 165;
as pivotal term, ix;
use of term, xiii
“in-” terms, ix, xiii, xiv, 186
Internet:Brazil’s role in, 136;
digital worlds, 44–46;
emergence of, 2;
significance, 136
intertextuality:
in Latinomérica, 130;
in O guesa, 107;
transamerican poetics related, 48, 58–61
Invenção: Revista de arte de vanguarda, 20–21;
front covers, 22f, 23f
Invenção group, 151
invention:America as metaphor for surprise and, 31–32;
in “Brazilwood Manifesto,” 19;
in Carvalho, 126;
as creativity, 19;
cultural semantics of, 19–20;
as discovery, 19, 168, 186;
English words, 39;
fresh meanings of, 186;
influences on Veloso, 114;
as linguistic artifice, 24;
Noigandres group, 20, 104;
O’Gorman on, 30;
poetry of, 21, 24;
use of term, xiv, 19;
in Vocogramas, 148
invention-novel, 21
Iracema references, 132, 186
Irish tales, 10
island, Brazil as:early expeditions, 190n24;
maps and insularity, 9–11, 12;
references in music, 181;
visual poem on, 14, 15f
island, New York as, 51
island, use of concept, 180
Jacobina, Nelson, 171
Jameson, Fredric, 2, 68, 93
jazz, 77–86;
collage images, 64;
impact of, 86;
Veloso on, 86
jazz poetry, 77
Jiménez, Reynaldo, 209n60
Johnson, Randal, xi, 198n6
joke poems, 40, 93, 198–99n16
Jor, Jorge Ben, 87
Kaos (Mautner), 166, 170, 171, 173, 176. See also chaos, theory of
Kaq, Francisco, 179–80
Kozer, José, 141, 159, 161
Kuhnheim, Jill, 159
La araucana, 99, 113
Lafer, Celso, 208n42
language issues:in Accioly, 130–31;
in Bernstein proposal, 4;
colonization, 140;
currency of Portuguese, 183;
ecumenical poetry, 14, 16;
experimental language, 175;
(p.245) Guarani, 160, 161, 210n66;
Iberian peninsula, 141–42;
independence era, 140;
master’s language, 25, 46, 184;
native languages, 130–31;
neobaroque modes, 160–61;
poetic gaps between Spanish and Portuguese, 157;
polylingual epic poetry, 114;
polyvalence, 35–36;
portunhol, 130, 160;
Veloso on Hispanic repertory, 139
Lara, Camilo, 85–86
Latin America:Brazil’s position, 3;
Cardoso on discovery, 139–40;
as fluid notion, 142;
use of term, 29
latinité, as cultural idea, 27, 28
Latinomérica (Accioly), 127–35;
contractions used in, 132–33;
formal aspects, 128–29;
intertextuality in, 130;
metaphor of, 133;
plurisignification, 131–32;
solitude in, 129
lavrar, meanings of, 43
Leaves of Grass (Whitman):Calamus section, 49, 50;
as epic poem, 98;
influence on Car-valho, 122;
influence on Sousândrade, 109;
Lopes volume, 18
Leite, Sebastião Uchoa, 54–55;
anotações series, 77–78;
cinematic references, 75–77;
on Monk, 83
Leminski, Paulo, 30–32, 88, 193n66
Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 28
Lezama Lima, José, 152, 158, 160, 161
Leão, Paulo, 197n
Lima, Jorge de, 102, 127
Lima, Luiz Costa, 116
Lima, Manoel Ricardo de, 63
Lindsay, Vachel, 68
linguistic materiality, 51–52
Lins, Paulo, 92, 93
literature:of the Americas, 3;
in cross-cultural rapport, 139;
pioneer inter-American, 146;
USAmerican influences overview, 66;
Western heritage, 130
Livón-Grosman, Ernesto, 16
Lobo, Luiza, 116
local/global, 4, 165
Lopes, Rodrigo Garcia, 17–18, 49, 78;
“A tem-pestade,” 182–83;
Polivox, 95–96
Lowell, Robert, 171, 211n14
Lugones, Leopoldo, 100
Luz, Rogério, 69f
Lynch, David, 75, 199n19
lyric:criticism on, x;
dialects and dialects, 14;
early modern, 8;
globalized, 8–9;
late modern, 8;
medium for unfolding, 1;
polypositionality of lyrical selves, 35;
postmodern fate of, 46;
present-day, 187;
as problematic, 5;
related to film, 68;
transmerican poetics related, 3;
use of term, xiv
Machado de Assis, 52, 101, 202n17
Maciel, Maria Esther, x, 152, 158
McLaren, Malcolm, 175–76
McLuhan, Marshall, 36
“made in” analyzed, 43–44
Madureira, Luis, 19
magic realism, 129, 130
Mallarmé, Stéphane, 52, 55, 152
mangue beat (swamp rock): xvi, 165, 166, 173;
rock compared, 174
manifest destiny, 123
“Manifesto of Pau-Brasil Poetry” (Brazilwood Manifesto), 18–19, 167–68;
influence on Tropicalists, 173;
natural world versus industrial society, 121
maps, 10–11
“Maracatu atômico,” 166, 168, 171–72, 176;
linguistic artifice, 173;
lyric, 172;
reflection and reinterpretation in, 173
Maranhão, Salgado, 42–44;
dedication to, 115;
genius of, 114;
on globalization, 93;
influence of Stevens, 195n33;
“Moviemento,” 73–74;
“Penúltimo blues,” 89;
poetics of space, 42;
political consciousness, 116;
translation, 194n24
Maranhão (state), 105, 106
marginalized groups, 91–92
marginal poetry, 87–88
Mariátegui, José Carlos, 28–29
Marilyn Monroe visual poem, 198n15
Martí, José, 28, 138, 142–43, 157
Martim Cererê (Ricardo), 102, 202n19
Martín Fierro, 100
Martinique, 98
Martins, Floriano, 89, 205n3, 210n70
Martins, Luciana, 144
Martins, Wilson, 122–23
masculine gaze, 55, 198n15
mass media, 2, 96
Matisse, Henri, 64
(p.246) Mato, Daniel, 205n6
Matogrosso, Ney, 154
Mattoso, Glauco, 87
Mautner, Jorge, 87, 165–66;
cycle of novels, 170–71;
Fragmentos de sabonete, 169, 170;
Lowell link, 171, 211n14;
“Maracatu atômi-co,” 166, 168, 171–72;
significance of, 171
maxixe, 87, 200n40
Mayans, 155–56
Medusário, 209n63
Meira, Caio, 38
Meireles, Cecília, 33, 102
Mello, Thiago de, 153
Melo e Castro, E. M. de, 51
Melo Neto, João Cabral de, 62–63, 83
Memorial da América Latina, 158
Mercosur area, 162, 210n73
Mercosur (Recondo), 210n73
Merquior, José Guilherme, 162–63
Mexico, 118
Miami, language use in, 141
Mignolo, Walter D., 26, 29, 193n62
military-industrial complex, 185
Milliet, Sérgio, 208n49
Minas Gerais, 40, 52, 101, 153, 197n2, 208n46
Miranda, Carmen, 168, 211n7, 211n10
miscegenation, 168
misreading, 31
Mistral, Gabriela, 100, 146
Modern Art Week (1922), 117, 121
modernism:axial figure, 143–44;
cannibalism, 25;
Carvalho’s first account, 117;
combative phase, 144;
epic poetry, 101–2;
hemispheric concerns, 122–23;
John the Baptist of, 145;
language issues, 140–41;
nationalism and, 101–2, 144;
objectification, 13–14;
Oswald’s influence on, 18;
poets, 145–46;
Whitman as influence, 33
modernity, 94
monarchy, 140
Monk, Thelonius, 78, 82–84
Monroe Doctrine, 27
Montaner, Carlos Alberto, 205n5
Moore, Marianne, 63–64
Moore, Michael, 184
Morais, Claudio Nunes de, 59–61
Morais, Vinicius de, 121, 208n49
More, Thomas, 12
Moreira, Luiza Franco, x, 195n34, 202n19
Moriconi, Italo, 49–50
Morrison, Jim, 89
Morse, Richard, 58, 140–41
“Moviemento” (Maranhão), 73–74
movie poems, 70, 74
movies, 68–76;
City of God, 92;
as export industry, 70;
in lyric, 71–76;
perceptions of Brazil, 73
Movimento Mangue, 165, 170;
mangue beat, xvi, 166;
of Recife, 166, 173
Muisca Indians, 104
multi-mixed-media performances, 71
multitemporal heterogeneity, 95–96
music:Anglo-American (1960s-1970s), 86;
cinematic imagery, 72–73;
jazz, 77–86;
metaphors of, 97;
nueva trova, 154. See also popular music
Música Popular Brasileira (MPB), 86
Nação Zumbi, 166, 173–75
naming issues, 26
Napoleon III (Louis-Napoleon), 27
Nascimento, Milton, 154
nationalism:modernism and, 101–2, 144;
in Sousândrade, 105;
in Whitman, 122–23
nationality, 95
nativism, 99
neobaroque, 158–60
neocolonialism, in Accioly, 127–28
neo-epical works:by women, 100;
celebration of Americas concept, xvi
neoliberalism, 46, 183
Neruda, Pablo, 98, 100, 114, 130;
homage to Castro Alves, 151;
impact on engagé verse, 153
New Criticism, 33
New World consciousness: xvi, 8, 25;
Car-valho, 124;
in O guesa, 107–8;
O’Gorman on, 30;
Williams, 60;
writing, 196n67
New World studies, 3
New York/Manhattan experience, 50–52, 109;
as dystopia, 113;
“O inferno de Wall Street,” 104, 109–13
New York Stock Exchange, 105
Noigandres group:admiration in Spanish-language circles, 207n33;
described, 146;
(p.247) discovery of Sousândrade, 104;
founders of concrete poetry, 20;
Paz discovery of, 152
Noll, João Gilberto, 49
non-European populations, 99;
in O guesa, 108, 109–10
north-south conflict/divide, 128, 155
“Now/Nowhere/Here” installation (Antunes), 36, 194n10
nueva trova, 154
Oates, Joyce Carol, 134
objectification:in Brazilwood Manifesto, 19;
problem of, 13
observer/observed, 76
O’Dougherty, Maureen, 94
O’Gorman, Edmundo, 30
O guesa (Sousândrade), 103–17
O’Hara, Frank, 8
“O inferno de Wall Street”:analyzed, 109–13;
as best known, 104;
characterized, 203n20;
formal aspects, 112–13;
as hermetic collage, 113;
linguistic features, 114
Oiticica, Hélio, 198n9
Oliveira, Solange Ribeiro de, 197n1
Omeros (Walcott), 130, 134
O Novo Mundo, 113
Organization of American States (OAS), 29
organization of book: xv;
questions raised, 1
Oroboro, 161–62, 210n71
Orpheu journal, 117
Os Lusíadas (Camões), 101, 128
Os Mutantes, 176
otherness, 157, 169, 186, 187
Paiva, Joaquim, 95–96
Palma, Ricardo, 113
Palmer, Michael, 18, 34
Pan-American contexts, shared moments, 8–9
Pan-Americanism:anti-imperialist view of, 29;
critics of, 144;
French efforts versus, 28;
as geopolitical concept, 142
Pandeiro, Jackson do, 165–66, 169, 176;
on Mautner, 171;
stage name analyzed, 177
Paro, Maria Clara Bonetti, 122
Patiño, Roxana, 162
Paz, Octavio, 100;
Haroldo de Campos link, 151–53;
“mobility of tradition,” 158
Peirce, Charles Sanders, 16
Pereira, Antonio, 48
Pereira, Edimilson, 89
Perloff, Marjorie, 55–56
Perlongher, Néstor, 6, 158–59, 209n63
Pernambuco, 165, 166
Pessoa, Fernando, 117, 135
photography, 58
Pignatari, Décio, 148–51, 192n43, 207n29
Pike, Frederick B., 86
Pinto, Manuel da Costa, 160
Pizarro, Ana, 139
place, perceptions of, 6;
noting the center, 56;
in Sousândrade narration, 105–6
Plan Cultural Interamericano, 29
Plath, Sylvia, 58, 73
Plato, 107
Poe, Edgar Allan, 52–54
poeisis, 64, 125
poema-processo, 52
poesia condoreira, 150
“poetic justice,” 100, 128
poetic persona, self-doubting, 144–45
poetic space, 78
poetry:continuity with popular music, 164;
expanding reach of, 187;
expansion into different arts, 66–67;
geocultural positioning, x;
globalization issues, 5;
Iberian history, 141;
of invention, 21, 24;
present-day, 187;
selection criteria, xv;
US influences, 66–67;
as visionary knowledge, 7
poetry for export, xvi, 176, 177
poetry of song, 153–56
political ideologies, 67
political poetry, 153–56;
activism in the arts, 20–21;
art as attack, 134;
committed writing, 102–3, 153–56;
global capitalism, 75–76
Polivox (Lopes), 95–96
popular music:allure of, 86;
blues, 89–91;
bolero, 139;
continuity with poetry, 164;
de-territorialization in, 91;
influence of English on, 35;
MPB, 86;
overview, 67;
Tropicalist tensions, 168;
Porter, Cole, 73, 199n16
Portugal, 77;
conferences, 158;
shared history, 141–42;
Spanish influence in, 142
(p.248) Portuguese language:currency of, 183;
expansion and insularity, 9
Portunhol, 130, 160
postconcrete experimentalism, 67
postmodernism:age of, 1;
epic poetry, 102–3;
fate of lyric, 46;
traits, 95;
in writing, 159–60
postutopian poem, 152
Pound, Ezra, 16, 20, 33, 49, 51, 83, 96, 116
pragmatism, Yankee, 46
pre-Columbian myth, 104, 128, 130
Presley, Elvis, 75
Primeira Bienal Internacional de Poesia de Brasília, 209n59
promised land, 120
prose fiction, 5
psychology of composition, 58
Puerto Rico, 60
Québec, 29
Québécois French, 160
quincentennial of Columbus’ arrival, 134–35, 151
race, 29, 34, 91, 97, 143, 173
racial issues, 175
Ramalho, Christina, 100
reading via negation, 30–31
Recondo, Gregorio, 162, 210n73
resistance, poetics of, 51, 153–56
reterritorialization, 5
reverse conquest and colonization, 128
Revue d’Amérique Latine, 28
Reyes, Alfonso, 143
Ribeiro, Darcy, 201n2
Ribeiro Neto, Amador, x, 35
Ricardo, Cassiano, 102, 202n19
Richard, Nelly, 6
Riding, Laura, 18
Rio de Janeiro, 26, 74, 76, 102, 106, 161, 171, 208n49
Risério, Antonio, 21
River Plate, 151
Rivera, Diego, 3
Rizzo, Ricardo, 155
rock music, 86–90, 169, 171, 174, 176, 180
Rodó, José Enrique, 99–100
Rodríguez, Silvio, 208
Rojas, Gonzalo, 78, 157
Rolling Stones, references to, 88
Romanticism, 104;
Humboldt’s influence on, 203n24;
New World registers, 142;
in O guesa, 108;
in Sousândrade, 203n30
Romero, Sílvio, 113
Roquette-Pinto, Claudia, 84, 197n
roteiros, 71, 198n10
Rothenberg, Jerome, 18
sacrificial victims, 105
Said, Edward, 166
Saint Brendan island, 10–11
Salomão, Waly:on Beat poets, 52;
homage to, xiv–xv;
“Ideograma” poster-poem, 73;
influence of, 182;
travel paradigm, 47;
use of English, 39
Sandmann, Marcelo, 78
Sant’Anna, Affonso Romano de, 102
Santiago, Silviano, 50, 67–68, 69f, 70, 197n2, 197–98n4
Santos Chocano, José, 100
São Paulo, 20, 21, 77, 143–45, 158, 161, 189n1
Sarduy, Severo, 209n62
Saul, Scott, 78
“-scapes,” 2, 66
Schwartz, Jorge, 145
Schwarz, Roberto, 93, 116
Science, Chico, 166, 173–75;
on chaos, 176;
impact analyzed, 179;
“poetry for export,” 176;
stage name, 174, 177–78
scion, use of term, 165
Sex Pistols, 175–76
shantytowns, 74, 208n49
Sibila: Revista de poesia e cultura, 18, 161
sigla, meanings of, 43
Silva, José Asunción. See Asunción Silva, José
Simone, Nina, 89–90
slavery, 91, 92;
in O guesa, 106;
in visual poem, 150
Smith, William Jay, 171
soap operas, 139
soccer, 138, 140
socioeconomic stratifcation, 7
solidarity, 187;
poems of, 155
solitude theme, 129
Sosa, Víctor, 209n60
Sousândrade:on Brazil’s potential, 116–17;
Campos brothers on, 202n22;
contribution (p.249) of, 115;
as critic of capitalism, 13, 110–12;
Hispanic links, 113;
as inter-American antecedent, 16;
invention in, 103;
in Kaq, 180–81;
musical homage, 114;
on naming Manhattan, 51;
notions of “American,” 101;
O guesa, 103–17;
origins of pen name, 107;
Oswald de Andrade compared, 112;
Romanticism in, 203n30;
on the United States, 108–9
“Soy loco por ti América”:as political song, 154;
verses, 136, 137f, 204–5n
space, poetics of, 42
Spain, shared history, 141–42
Spanish America, 27;
Banda Hispânica link, 136, 138, 205n3;
discord issues with Brazil, 142, 206n11;
literature analyzed, 143;
Veloso gesture, 138–39, 205n4
Spanish language, in Sousândrade epic, 114
Spanish language publications, 14, 16
spectacularity, society of, 93
Stein, Gertrude, 55–58, 159
“Steintâneos” title-poem, 58
stereotypes, 13, 55, 73
Stevens, Wallace, 49, 61, 195n33
subglobalization, 3
superheroes, 67, 94
surrealism, 62, 161
syncretic poetics, 24
Szeman, Imre, 189–90n6
Tabaré, 113
telenovelas, 139
telluric portrayals, 123, 124
temporal dimension, in O guesa, 106
three Americas, 97–98
titles of poems, 37–39
Toda a América (Carvalho), 117–27;
five variations, 126;
formal aspects, 118;
freedom motifs, 118, 120;
frontispiece, 119f;
impact of, 126–27;
as lyric-epic, 118;
plurisignification in, 131–32;
Reyes reference to, 143;
timing and influences, 121, 204n45
Tomlinson, John, 6
topoemas, 152
Tordesillas:deconstructing line of, 158;
as signifier, 161
Tordesillas, Treaty of, 141–42
Torquato Neto, 92, 200n52
Torres Caicedo, José María, 27
Torres Filho, Rubens Rodrigues, 54
Torres-Ríoseco, Arturo, 146
totalizing impulse, 125–26
Toumson, Roger, 12
transamerican, meaning of, 4
transamerican poetics:concept explored, 3–4;
examples, 49;
global expansions and, 6;
insularity and, 9;
intertextuality, 48;
lyric related, 3;
overviews, 96, 187;
search for commonalities, 184
transamerican relations in the arts, 136
translatability issues, 5, 14
translation:of Borges, 146;
of leading USAmerican poets, 17–18;
“Manifesto an-tropófago,” 71, 198n9;
of Poe, 52;
as strategy, 16–17
travel paradigm, 16–17, 47, 163
Treaty of Madrid, 142
trees, 60
trickster at the crossroads, 181
Tropicália, use of term, 211n2
Tropicalism:aims, 9;
characterized, 154, 164;
CSNZ parallels, 173–74;
and erudite art, 158;
exhibits, 210–11n1;
incorporating international influences, 174;
Marxist view, 195n42;
neobaroque verse and, 160;
North American interest in, 176;
old/new juxtaposition, 175;
as performative sound production, 165;
relevance, 164
tropicalismo, use of term, 211n2
tropicalizations, 167
Tupi references, 25, 51, 114
tyrant, solitude of, 129–30
United Fruit Company, 155
United States:acronym, 180;
as a country without a name, 9;
critiques and tensions, xvi, 46;
frames of reference from, 34–35;
hegemony in lyric discourse, 142–43;
Hollywood, 68;
importance of relationship with, 33;
industrial hegemony, 170;
Latino expressions, 166;
mediated culture, 96;
naming practices, 26, 27;
in O guesa, 108–9;
Oswald on movies, 70;
overview of influences, 96;
political models, 107;
postwar ties, 33;
robber baron era, 110–12;
scandals, 111;
Transcendentalist writers, 107;
view of artists, 33–34;
way of life, 68
(p.250) University of São Paulo, 28
Unruh, Vicky, 123, 125
urban pollution, 42, 44
urban sites, 50–52;
Azevedo on, 89;
Borges on, 144;
as danger zones, 76;
Leite on, 76;
Mário de Andrade on, 144;
violence, 92
Uruguay, 142
USAmerican English and poetry, engagement with, xv, 33–65
USAmerican poets, dedications and epigraphs to, 48
utopia, 12, 181, 182, 183
Valente, Luiz Fernando, 91
Vallejo, César, 123
vanguard period, 125
Vasconcelos, José, 143
Vassallo, Lígia, 139
vehicles of lyric (event), 158
Veloso, Caetano:on Carmen Miranda, 168, 211n7;
on discovery, 9–10;
Fina Estampa, 138–39, 154;
influence of Oswald, 173;
on jazz, 86;
mangue movement compared, 165;
on Mautner, 171;
on naming Manhattan, 51;
on navigation, 135;
“necessity of art,” 168;
Pandeiro kinship, 169;
poetry of song, 164;
poets of invention, 114;
on Porter, 199n16;
“Soy loco por ti,” 205n;
on use of English, 35, 38, 47;
verse about Gil, 114
Verhaeren, Émile, 203n39
Verissimo, Érico, 33
Veríssimo, José, 143
Vilar, Bluma W., 72–73, 198–99n16
Violão de Rua, 153–56
violence:in Accioly, 133–34;
in film, 73–74
virgin hemisphere notion, 124
visual arts, 64
Visual Poetry exhibition, 36
Vocogramas, 148, 149f, 207n30
Vogt, Carlos, 12, 156–57, 181–82, 209n52
vultures, 150
Waits, Tom, 89
Walcott, Derek, 127, 130
waste, symbols of, 93
Weinberger, Eliot, 48
Weintraub, Fábio, 75
Welles, Orson, 198n8
Werbner, Pnina, 6
West African religions, 181
Whitman, Walt:formal aspects in Carvalho, 122;
influence on Antunes, 37;
influence on Carvalho, 118, 121–23;
influence on Corona, 49;
influence of, 33, 87;
influence on Sousândrade, 109;
nationalism in, 122–23;
respect for, 185;
Salomão translation, xv;
salutation of, 196–97n74;
use by poets, 37–38
Williams, Frederick, x, 202n23, 203n27
Williams, Raymond, 93
Williams, William Carlos, 58–61;
influence of, 67, 83
Wisnik, José Miguel, 181
Wolff, Joca, 51
women writers, 100;
poets, 145–46
World Cup (soccer), 138
World Wide Web, 44–46, 136
writing, technology related, 51–52
Young, Lester, 80–81
youth culture, 175
Zappa, Frank, 89
Zé, Tom, 176

(p.251) Charles A. Perrone is professor of Portuguese and Luso-Brazilian literature and culture in the Department of Spanish and Portuguese Studies and is coordinator of Brazilian Studies in the Center for Latin American Studies at the University of Florida, Gainesville. (p.252)