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Hillforts of the Ancient Andes – Colla Warfare, Society, and Landscape - Florida Scholarship Online
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Hillforts of the Ancient Andes: Colla Warfare, Society, and Landscape

Elizabeth N. Arkush


By AD 1000, the Colla controlled the high-altitude plains near Lake Titicaca in southern Peru. They fought over the region for many centuries before becoming a subject people of the Inca (who described them as the most formidable foes they had faced) circa 1450, and then of the Spanish in the sixteenth century. Like any people at war, the Colla were not engaged in active conflict all the time. But frequent warfare (perhaps over limited natural resources), along with drought and environmental changes, powerfully influenced the society's settlement choices and physical defenses, as well as their ... More

Keywords: Colla, plains, Lake Titicaca, Peru, Inca, warfare, drought, environmental changes, settlement, defenses, Andes, archaeological investigation, hillforts, sociopolitical organization, pre-Columbian societies

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2011 Print ISBN-13: 9780813035260
Published to Florida Scholarship Online: September 2011 DOI:10.5744/florida/9780813035260.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Elizabeth N. Arkush, author
University of Virginia