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Hillforts of the Ancient AndesColla Warfare, Society, and Landscape$
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Elizabeth N. Arkush

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780813035260

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813035260.001.0001

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Hierarchy and Heterarchy within Pukara Communities

Hierarchy and Heterarchy within Pukara Communities

(p.76) 4 Hierarchy and Heterarchy within Pukara Communities
Hillforts of the Ancient Andes

Elizabeth N. Arkush

University Press of Florida

The pukaras occupied the largest and most imposing Late Intermediate period sites known in the northern basin. This is where one would have expected the Colla lords to reside, if there had been Colla lords. There has been almost no excavation of the Colla sites of the Late Intermediate period. However, the surface architecture at the sites of the pukaras is often quite well preserved, allowing considerable insight into the internal structure of these late pre-Columbian communities. This chapter provides a detailed discussion of what the pukaras looked like. The structure of the pukara communities is revealed by intrasite layout and organization, showing that heterarchy and segmentation rather than hierarchy and centralization were emphasized. This chapter examines Late Intermediate period surface architecture to clarify how the pukaras worked, as defensive sites bound together by the threat of violence, as places of domestic residence and economic production, and as loci of ceremony.

Keywords:   pukaras, Late Intermediate period, Colla lords, pre-Columbian communities, hierarchy, heterarchy

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