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Hillforts of the Ancient AndesColla Warfare, Society, and Landscape$
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Elizabeth N. Arkush

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780813035260

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813035260.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM FLORIDA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.florida.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University Press of Florida, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in FLASO for personal use.date: 28 July 2021

Explaining Colla War

Explaining Colla War

Pukaras through Time

(p.182) 6 Explaining Colla War
Hillforts of the Ancient Andes

Elizabeth N. Arkush

University Press of Florida

This chapter examines the pukara chronology and its implications for understanding the causes of warfare in this context. Radiocarbon dates show that the pukaras did not evolve gradually over time but appeared suddenly on the scene at about AD 1300, undermining the interpretation that Late Intermediate period warfare resulted directly from the collapse of Wari and Tiwanaku. This chapter presents a chronology of pukara construction and use, drawn mainly from radiocarbon dates. Hillforts in the Colla area did not become common for more than two centuries after the collapse of Tiwanaku. This finding shifts the onus to other explanations for the late escalation of warfare. The evidence for climate change as a factor is especially well supported, but in addition, there is evidence that warfare, once it became widespread, worked to create the social, political, and material conditions for its own perpetuation.

Keywords:   pukara chronology, radiocarbon dates, Late Intermediate period, Wari, Tiwanaku, Colla war

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