The trial of the officers who surrendered was delayed until 1804–1805 because of the slowness in assembling testimony. The charges were inflated and ignored evidence, and the guilty findings were expected. Only Portell, however, suffered, because higher appeals courts never reviewed his case. Bowles, meanwhile, refused to participate in his trial, which made it impossible to proceed, and, tired of incarceration, starved himself to death in 1805. Spanish hold of the Gulf Coast continued to weaken in the years after Bowles, and Spain's involvement in numerous domestic and colonial conflicts forced it to surrender the Floridas to the United States.
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