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War on the Gulf CoastThe Spanish Fight against William Augustus Bowles$
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Gilbert C. Din

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780813037523

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813037523.001.0001

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Bowles and Apalache on Separate Paths, 1792–1798

Bowles and Apalache on Separate Paths, 1792–1798

(p.55) 4 Bowles and Apalache on Separate Paths, 1792–1798
War on the Gulf Coast

Gilbert C. Din

University Press of Florida

This chapter discusses both Bowles's travels and Apalache during these years. Colonial authorities sent Bowles to Spain and the Philippines as a prisoner. He created so much mischief in Manila that the governor sent him back to Spain, but he escaped on the return journey. Bowles returned to England and again sought help for his Muskogee state. Great Britain provided little. Apalache, meanwhile, remained restless. The Creeks had no comparable leader upon McGillivray's death in 1793. The Seminoles continued to seek goods from Nassau while the Georgians encroached on Creek lands. Spain's 1795 treaty with the United States placed most Creek lands in American hands. Fort San Marcos sustained heavy damages again in a hurricane, which underscored the weaknesses of Spanish defenses in West Florida.

Keywords:   Bowles's travels, Creek leader, Seminoles, American land-grabbing

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