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Spies and ShuttlesNASA's Secret Relationships with the DoD and CIA$
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James E. David

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780813049991

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: May 2015

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813049991.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM FLORIDA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.florida.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University Press of Florida, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in FLASO for personal use.date: 27 September 2021

Concerns over Human Spaceflight Program Experiments and Lunar and Astronomy Program Technologies

Concerns over Human Spaceflight Program Experiments and Lunar and Astronomy Program Technologies

(p.150) Chapter 5 Concerns over Human Spaceflight Program Experiments and Lunar and Astronomy Program Technologies
Spies and Shuttles

James E. David

University Press of Florida

Experiments in the human spaceflight program delivered many scientific benefits, involved numerous international partners, and greatly enhanced the prestige of NASA and the United States. There were strong objections to including DoD classified experiments in Gemini, but in the end NASA flew them under a compromise that acknowledged their presence but permitted the results to be withheld. Astronaut photography was a sensitive activity. The national security community applied the remote sensing technological restrictions to the cameras and instituted both a pre-mission review of photographic plans and a post-mission review of the imagery before public release. In the first known use of classified technologies, NASA's lunar photography programs utilized cameras from several reconnaissance programs under agreements which hid their true origin and acquisition procedures. Its space-based astronomy programs received intense scrutiny because of their sophisticated optical systems. The national security community soon lifted the restrictions on what systems could be flown but insisted that certain technical details be protected. The NRO permitted the Hubble telescope to be built at a contractor's classified facility, but it is unclear whether classified manufacturing or testing processes were used. Other NRO contractors made a backup mirror and assembled the complete spacecraft. NASA utilized an NRO container to ship the completed spacecraft.

Keywords:   NASA, NRO, national security, Gemini, astronaut photography, lunar photography, astronomy, Hubble

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