This chapter introduces readers to the basics of understanding bone’s functions, which include calcium homeostasis and enabling movement, bone’s components, such as the collagen, and bone’s organization, such as the Haversian system found in cortical bone. The focus of this chapter is on explaining concepts of bone remodeling, which is thought to prevent fractures and other bone damage, and repair, which can take place at macro-levels and micro-levels. Wolff’s Law of bone remodeling, which was initially focused on trabecular bone changes, is discussed in terms of bone’s response to forces that result in strains and stresses. Finally, diarthrodial joint remodeling and repair are discussed; cartilage cells were once thought to be static, yet now they are known to also respond to stresses.
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