This chapter looks at the key currents in racial theory as well as the vital role the Middle Ages played in constructing the methods by which these histories have been passed down. It examines the relationship between medieval and the modern concept of race. It analyzes the significance of T-O maps, in which the O shape of the world is divided by T-shaped bodies of water into areas, including Europe, Asia, and Africa. The chapter examines the indications of these medieval maps in the pre-modern notions of race and discusses the relationship between gender and race. It also details the executions and prosecutions of animals for various crimes against humans. It looks at the ambivalence of the medieval treatment of black people in cultural production.
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