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Migration and DisruptionsToward a Unifying Theory of Ancient and Contemporary Migrations$
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Brenda J. Baker and Takeyuki Tsuda

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780813060804

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: January 2016

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9780813060804.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM FLORIDA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.florida.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University Press of Florida, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in FLASO for personal use.date: 17 September 2021

Migration as a Response to Environmental and Political Disruption

Migration as a Response to Environmental and Political Disruption

The Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Periods in the South-Central Andes

(p.123) 6 Migration as a Response to Environmental and Political Disruption
Migration and Disruptions

Kelly J. Knudson

Christina Torres-Rouff

University Press of Florida

This chapter investigates the role of environmental and political disruption on migration patterns in the South-Central Andes during the Middle Horizon (c. A.D. 500–1100) and Late Intermediate Period (c. A.D. 1100–1400) in the San Pedro de Atacama oases of northern Chile. During the centuries covered by this study, life in the oases was impacted by the decline of the large, expansive Tiwanaku polity in neighboring Bolivia and a severe drought. This study presents bioarchaeological and biogeochemical, including isotopic, data to identify migration in the oases. These data suggest that what had been potentially regular and visible migration and interregional movements in the Middle Horizon was greatly reduced in the subsequent Late Intermediate Period, a period characterized by political and environmental disruption. This chapter illustrates that human responses to environmental disruptions vary, and may or may not include migration from one environmental zone to another, presumably less affected, zone.

Keywords:   Tiwanaku, San Pedro de Atacama, Bolivia, Chile, Isotopic data, Bioarchaeology, Biogeochemistry, South Central Andes, Middle Horizon, Late Intermediate Period

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