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Detain and PunishHaitian Refugees and the Rise of the World's Largest Immigration Detention System$
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Carl Lindskoog

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9781683400400

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: January 2019

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9781683400400.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM FLORIDA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.florida.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University Press of Florida, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in FLASO for personal use.date: 19 May 2022

The Refugee Crisis of 1980

The Refugee Crisis of 1980

Forging the Detention Tool

(p.33) 2 The Refugee Crisis of 1980
Detain and Punish

Carl Lindskoog

University Press of Florida

Chapter 2 examines the Caribbean refugee crisis of 1980 and the government’s response. After more than one hundred thousand Cubans and tens of thousands of Haitians arrived on American shores in a matter of months, the Carter administration implemented a policy of detention for both groups. But this temporary response mutated into a more permanent policy of long-term detention for Haitians (as well as several hundred Cubans) and ultimately into the more widespread use of detention for asylum seekers. This chapter also explores the origins and early history of the Krome Avenue Detention Center in Miami, a site that remained central to the history of immigration detention and also documents attempts by the government to create its first refugee processing center and detention facility outside of the mainland United States, in Fort Allen, Puerto Rico. Ultimately, the Carter administration’s treatment of Haitian asylum seekers at this critical moment in 1980 enabled the succeeding administration to dramatically expand the role of detention in the U.S. government’s immigration enforcement arsenal.

Keywords:   Carter administration, Refugee crisis, Cubans, Haitians, Asylum seekers, Krome Avenue Detention Center, Fort Allen, Puerto Rico, Detention

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