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Navigating Life and Work in Old Republic São Paulo$
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Molly C. Ball

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9781683401667

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: May 2021

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9781683401667.001.0001

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(p.168) Conclusion
Navigating Life and Work in Old Republic São Paulo

Molly C. Ball

University Press of Florida

The Old Republic could have been a turning point in Brazilian development, but two important factors stunted that potential. The Hospedaria provided a cheap labor supply by bringing in working families, proving a disincentive to industrialist innovation. World War I cut short standards-of-living advancements and exacerbated working-class divisions. By the end of the Old Republic, access to the middle class was open to some, but closed to most, especially Afro-Brazilian women. These conclusions encourage scholars to revisit World War I’s impact in Latin America; to investigate how state institutions impact development; to consider working-class divisions when analysing Getulio Vargas–era labor reforms; and to include family agency in analyses of the modern era.

Keywords:   Getulio Vargas, family agency, Brazilian development, Afro-Brazilian women

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