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Chocolate CrisisClimate Change and Other Threats to the Future of Cacao$
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Dale Walters

Print publication date: 2021

Print ISBN-13: 9781683401674

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: September 2021

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9781683401674.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM FLORIDA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.florida.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University Press of Florida, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in FLASO for personal use.date: 27 November 2021

Swollen Shoots

Swollen Shoots

Chapter:
(p.100) 8 Swollen Shoots
Source:
Chocolate Crisis
Author(s):

Dale Walters

Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:10.5744/florida/9781683401674.003.0008

This chapter deals with cacao swollen shoot disease, which has wreaked havoc in cacao-growing areas of West Africa since its first report in the early part of the twentieth century. First thought to be caused by drought, it was subsequently found to be caused by a virus—the cacao swollen shoot virus—and to be transmitted between cacao trees by several species of mealybug, including Formicococcus njalensis. Today, we know that ten viruses are involved in causing the disease, which is restricted to West Africa. The chapter examines the transmission of the virus and the efforts made to restrict its spread and reduce its impact. Attempts to tackle the disease have resulted in the destruction of some 300 million trees so far, which gives an indication of the considerable efforts that have been made to contain this devastating disease.

Keywords:   cacao swollen shoot disease, West Africa, cacao-growing areas, swollen shoot virus, mealybug, Formicococcus njalensis

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