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Chocolate CrisisClimate Change and Other Threats to the Future of Cacao$
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Dale Walters

Print publication date: 2021

Print ISBN-13: 9781683401674

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: September 2021

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9781683401674.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM FLORIDA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.florida.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University Press of Florida, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in FLASO for personal use.date: 06 December 2021

Sap Suckers

Sap Suckers

Chapter:
(p.115) 10 Sap Suckers
Source:
Chocolate Crisis
Author(s):

Dale Walters

Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:10.5744/florida/9781683401674.003.0010

The cacao tree is host to some 1500 different insect species, though, mercifully, only a tiny fraction of these cause serious damage. One such group are sap-suckers known as capsids in West Africa, specifically Sahlbergella singularis and Distantiella theobromae, and mirids in Asia (Helopeltis species), and Central and South America (Monalonion species). These tiny insects are responsible for significant losses to cacao crops, resulting from direct damage through their feeding, as well as the ravages of opportunistic fungi that invade the tree via wounds caused by the mirids. This chapter looks at the biology and ecology of these sap-sucking pests and how this knowledge helps in devising control methods.

Keywords:   mirids, capsids, cacao tree, cacao crops, Sahlbergella singularis, Distantiella theobromae, Helopeltis species, Monalonion species

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