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Chocolate CrisisClimate Change and Other Threats to the Future of Cacao$
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Dale Walters

Print publication date: 2021

Print ISBN-13: 9781683401674

Published to Florida Scholarship Online: September 2021

DOI: 10.5744/florida/9781683401674.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM FLORIDA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.florida.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University Press of Florida, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in FLASO for personal use.date: 18 January 2022

Cacao Borers

Cacao Borers

Chapter:
(p.123) 11 Cacao Borers
Source:
Chocolate Crisis
Author(s):

Dale Walters

Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:10.5744/florida/9781683401674.003.0011

The minute moth Conopomorpha cramerella is a dainty insect that poses a serious threat to the cacao industry in Southeast Asia – the cocoa pod borer. This insect is responsible for losses to the Indonesian cacao industry of some $500 million annually, and unfortunately, it has been reported from northern Australia. Cacao is also attacked by two lepidopterans (Eulophonotus myrmeleon and Zeuzera coffeae) and a weevil (various Pantorhytes species), which bore through the stem of the tree, causing considerable damage. This chapter examines the life cycles of these cocoa pod borers and cocoa stem borers and looks at how an understanding of their biology and ecology can help to manage these pests.

Keywords:   cacao industry, cocoa pod borer, minute moth, Conopomorpha cramerella, cocoa stem borer, Eulophonotus myrmeleon, Zeuzera coffeae, Pantorhytes species

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