The minute moth Conopomorpha cramerella is a dainty insect that poses a serious threat to the cacao industry in Southeast Asia – the cocoa pod borer. This insect is responsible for losses to the Indonesian cacao industry of some $500 million annually, and unfortunately, it has been reported from northern Australia. Cacao is also attacked by two lepidopterans (Eulophonotus myrmeleon and Zeuzera coffeae) and a weevil (various Pantorhytes species), which bore through the stem of the tree, causing considerable damage. This chapter examines the life cycles of these cocoa pod borers and cocoa stem borers and looks at how an understanding of their biology and ecology can help to manage these pests.
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